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Typically Developing Children: Changes in Speech Physiology and Motor Performance

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Chandani P

on 14 November 2013

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Transcript of Typically Developing Children: Changes in Speech Physiology and Motor Performance

Typically Developing Children: Changes in Speech Physiology and Motor Performance
Chandani Patel, Grady Redmond, Katrina Romeo, Kendall Salley, & Janoah Sallie
SPA 516
Dr. Clarke
0 - 2 years
2 - 4 years
4 - 6 years
6 - 8 years
8 - 10 years
Introduction
Motor Development
make movements of the mandible appropriately for speech and nonspeech tasks
At 2 years - children still have limited independence of upper and lower lip control
By 4 years - Organized motor commands for speech are influenced by phonetic, phrase and sentence-level goals
Kinematics
develop further independence of upper lip & jaw movement
During speech productions, primarily use rib cage motion to produce lung volume changes for speech
modify aspects of oral articulatory movement, specifically jaw movement when producing voiceless bilabial stops
Lip and jaw movement is task specific in children ages 3-4 years with more changes occurring during oral opening than closing
Speech Development
By 3 years, can be understood by 75 % of strangers and are producing between 150-200 words
At 4 , speech focuses on suprasegmental level with emphasis on vowel durations & fundamental frequency
Speech patterns as children develop between the ages of 3-4 aims at whole-word patterns
Fundamental frequency stabilizes in children between the ages of 3 and 12 years of age
Phonological Development
Phonemic Inventory: /p, b, m, n, h, w, g, t, d, ng/
Gains in articulation are sequential because of progression of speech motor control (Green et al.)
Because of the coordination needed to produce specific sounds - stops, nasals and bilabial sounds are predominate in ages 2-4
Coordinative features (jaw movement, poor lip and jaw coupling, poor lip control & poor upper/lower lip independent movement) make it difficult to produce certain sounds, such as fricatives
knowledge and use of ambient language/phonological system grows (Gildersleeve-Neumann et al.)
Most vowels are within a child’s inventory by the age of 2 years, however they are mastered with 95% accuracy by age 3
Clinical Implications
allows the creation of effective, sequential treatment for children showing atypical development
Speech motor delays may be able to be identified earlier with the knowledge of normal development
Differential diagnosis and treatment
References
Anatomical Changes
Impact on Vocalization
Clinical Application
Neural Network Tool; Self-Organizing Map (SOM) perceptron hybrid
Measurement of the acoustic maturity of infant utterances
“protophone” - prelinguistic vocal categories; squeals, growls, vocants

Respiration
early refinement of speech breathing is gradual process
little change in speech breathing behaviors from 4-6 years
Sound Development
Production/Timing/Coordination
Raspberry Spectrogram
(Buder, 2013)
(Mugitani, 2012)
(Vorperian, 2004)
(Hsu, 2000)
(Warlaumont, 2010)
8 - 10
12 - 16
18 - 24
4 - 6
0 - 2
8 - 10 months
full innervation of the respiratory system
vocal durations increased modulation of chest wall
crawling and sitting increase passive inspiratory recoil of ribs.
gains control of lip musculature
12 - 16 months
rapid lip growth
variations in respiratory loudness
Coordinates sucking, swallowing, and breathing patterns for longer sequences
jaw movements similar to adults
at 2 years, jaw movements exhibited decreased maturity due to the unstable articulation system during the lexicon expansion
16 months - stable jaw closing pattern
18 - 24 months
upper airway system becomes angular as it modifies into a double tube system (respiration and swallowing).
hard palate & maxillary lip thickness have reached 80% of adult length by 18 months
Birth - 3 months
Diaphragm Bellows
elevated larynx and hyoid bone
large tongue, small oral cavity
sucking and reflexive system
4 - 6 months
Oral cavity expansion
noticeable separation between oral and nasal cavities
larynx begins descent
dentition eruption
dental arcade established boundary and points of contact for lingual articulation
control over velopharyngeal development
3 months
4 months
10+ months
6 months
0 months
Birth
crying, vegetative sounds
reflexive vocal
quasivowels, glottal stops
3 months
full vowels
raspberries, squeals, growls, whispers
marginal babbling
4 months
laughter
gooing - face to face interaction
gains control of laryngeal and articulatory mechanisms
vowels appear more adult-like
6 months
Cannonical Babbling
phonetic repertoire; stops, nasals, glides, lax vowels
velars (back sounds) show a sharp decline
alveolars and bilabials show an increase
10 months and beyond
varigated babbling
significant increase in vowel and consonant repertoire
connected strings resemble questions, statements, and exclamations prosodically.
12 months; first true word appears
Babble Spectrogram
(Warlaumont, 2013)
How do vocalizations change within the vocal tract?
How does this influence how we, as speech-language pathologists, tailor our therapy to individual clients?
changes that happen biologically in pre-pubescent children (0-10 years old) with motor movements of the mandible and other structures are examined
At 4 - males & females have slight formant differences
Between 4-5: children begin to produce later developing sounds (fricatives, affricates, & liquids)
Speech intelligibility increases
Begin to modify & develop their individual speaking styles
speech focuses on suprasegmental level with emphasis on vowel duration & avg fundamental frequency
Easily adapt to different social contexts
~6 years
development in various areas is beginning to mirror adult-like function, size, and/or production
Vowel Emergence
Respiration
At age 6 the refinement process of respiratory patterns is nearing functional maturity
Laryngeal
Emergence of adult level morphology of the vocal folds starts at age 6
Upper Airway System
Vital changes to adult shaping of vocal tract occur during this period
Between 6 to 7 years, the skull nearly attains adult size, with minor immaturities.
Kinematic
Six-year-old movement patterns were similar to that of adults in the use of upper lip, lower lip and jaw for oral closure
Growth spurt in lower face begin to occur at age 7 and on
By 8 years old: Adult-like precision of jaw movement is achieved, while comparable management of lips and tongue continue to develop
Limited change in movement stability occurs during ages 5 to 11
Phonological
Gradual developmental progression in the speech motor system from 6 years to adulthood
master the following sounds /ch, sh, voiced and voiceless th, s, z, v, and j/ during this time window
(Buhr, 1980)
(Menard, 2009)
(Vorperian, 2011)
(Vorperian, 2011)
Respiration
8 years
Refinement of respiratory patterns
functional maturation achieved
Rest breathing rate is 17 – 22 breaths/min
10 years
Laryngeal System
7 –10 years
the third stage of laryngeal development takes place between the two layers of the lamina propria begin to be distinguishable
adult-like structure begins to take form at age 10
8 years
Sex differences begin to emerge in laryngeal tissues
12 years
Differentiation of lamina propria nearly complete
Adolescent voice change begins in males at 12.5 – 14.5 years of age
length of vocal folds is about 12 – 17 mm in pubescent girls and about 15 – 25 mm in pubescent boys
Oral & Pharyngeal Structures
facial bony structures continue to grow and develop until about 16-years
8 years
Adult-like precision of jaw movement achieved
comparable regulation of lips and tongue comes later
9 years
Atrophy of nasopharyngeal tonsil
10 years
pattern of VP closure may change in consequence
9 - 13 years
Rapid growth in tongue and lips
Production
9 - 10 year olds show more variability than young adults
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http://www.freesound.org/people/LS/sounds/102964/
From 5 years: speech rate ~3.6 syllables per second
speech segment durations & voice onset times are most variable during 2-6 years
4 years
refinement of motor speech coordination
Number of alveoli reaches adult value (about 3,00,000)
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