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Cite Your Sources
Transcript of Cite Your Sources
Works Cited / References
you must cite when you borrow someone else's ideas or language (aka their "intellectual property")
if you use the source's language or phrasing,
you MUST use quotations; failure to do so is
plagiarism, even if you include a parenthetical citation
When NOT to cite:
you do not need to cite information that is considered common knowledge, including well-known proverbs and quotations; consider your audience when making this decision -- when in doubt, cite!
Cite Your Sources!
all in-text citations refer to (and must match) the corresponding works cited entry
common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources; cite when you borrow ideas and/or language from a particular source
A Pocket-Style Manual (Diana Hacker
The Most Common Citation Styles
Modern Language Association
writing in humanities
American Psychology Association
writing in the sciences
language and literature studies, literary criticism, cultural studies
literature review and experimental report
each source you cite in the paper must appear in your works cited / reference list, and each entry in the works cited / reference list must be cited in your text
has its own page at the end of your paper
same margins, heading and spacing as the rest of your paper
indent subsequent lines of each citation five spaces (tab) so that you create a hanging indent
alphabetize the list by the first word of each entry
it's helpful to remember the basic elements (author's name, title, who published it, when it was published), but don't try to memorize the format -- just look it up!
Sample MLA Works Cited Page from Purdue OWL
same headings, margins and spacing as the rest of the paper!
no author's name available
multiple works by the same author
include page numbers if you used only a particular section of a work
include the medium of publication at the end of each entry
don't include URLs for web sources unless instructed to do so
hanging indent and alphabetization makes individual sources easier to find
italicize the names of longer works
put quotes around names of shorter works
Sample APA References List from Purdue OWL
same headings, margins and spacing as the rest of the paper
do NOT put quotes around names of shorter works
DO italicize names of longer works
only use initials of first (and middle) name(s)
only invert the first author's name
invert all author's names
if you can't find how to cite a source type, find a similar source type and use that format
maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title
parenthetical citations MUST come before the ending punctuation of the sentence
"Citing isn't so bad" (Jones 3).
if you introduce the source in text, you may omit redundant information from the parenthetical citation
According to Jones, "Citing isn't so bad" (3).
italicize longer works (books, films, series, collection)
put quotes around shorter works (articles, episodes, pieces from larger collections)
MLA In-Text Citations
author-page style (when possible!); no comma in between
if author is unknown, use a signal phrase -- a shortened title of the work
if page numbers are unavailable, don't give any!
+3 authors: give the first author's last name, then "et al."
(Cristofani et al. 6)
for more MLA in-text citation info, see Purdue OWL's MLA formatting and style guide
APA In-Text Citations
author-year style; comma in between
include a page number (preceded by "p.") only when using a direct quote, or paraphrasing from a long work
(Jones, 2012, p. 7)
if the author's name is cited within the text, cite the year immediately afterward, and the page number (if needed) at the end of the sentence
Jones (2012) claims citing isn't so bad (p. 7).
for more APA in-text citation info, see Purdue OWL's APA formatting and style guide
cheap and convenient
Rules for Writers (Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers)
written for college students
A Writer's Reference (Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers)
simple and comprehensive
The Purdue OWL <owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/>
comprehensive and free!