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Diagnosing Cancer

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Jessica Boer

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Diagnosing Cancer

Diagnosing Cancer By: Jessica Boer and Gina Thompson There are many types of diagnoses that can be used to identified cancer. Even though there are many diagnosis we can use, many tests are needed to prove if someone has cancer. The most popularly ways to diagnose cancer would be laboratory test, imaging test, biopsy's and endoscopic tests. Many test can say what stage it is at, describe where the cancer is located, where it is spreading in the body and if it is effecting the inside of the body or function of the organs. Cancer Diagnosis In a physical exam the doctor will look for anything that is not normal. The doctor might be able to diagnose whether you have cancer by the changes of your body. He/she will do this by checking moles and feeling places on your body to see if you have tumors or lumps anywhere. They will also look for color change or enlargement of organs. Physical Exam A laboratory test is used to test blood, urine and other fluids from the body. They use this to learn more about what they found, and to confirm what is happening inside. It can even be used to help diagnose a specific cancer like prostate or cervical cancer. To make sure treatment is working they can do a lab test and it will tell them. The most common lab test is a complete blood count. Laboratory Tests In a Biopsy small amounts of cells or tissues are removed to be sent to a lab to be examined. A pathologist will then examine the cells or tissues by using chemical stains and other types of tests to diagnosis the cancer. In some biopsy they can tell if cancer is present. Sometimes you can't use biopsy's because of the location of cancer so you need to use a different method. There are many types of biopsy but the main biopsy are: Bone marrow aspiration, Endoscopic, Core Needle, Fine needle aspiration, vacuum-assisted, image-guided and surgical biopsy. Biopsy Bone Marrow A endoscope biopsy is when the doctor puts a tube with a camera inside of the body to view the lung, bladder, abdomen and joints. An endoscope can be put in the body by mouth or a tiny surgical cut. The doctor can find areas that don't look normal and can remove a tiny sample using forceps which is part of the endoscope. Endoscopic In this biopsy, they use a needle to remove tissue or fluid to be examined under a microscope by a pathologist . There are several types of needle biopsies..... Needle Biopsy Core Needle In this biopsy they collect sample tissues and cells using a probe, vacuum assistance and imaging device. They put the probe through a small cut and use the imaging to guide the probe to the part they are examining. They then use the vacuum to gather the tissues. The doctor will do this biopsy to collect many or larger amounts of tissues to be examined. Vacuum-Assisted Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of cells in a part of the body In this method they use a long thin, hollow needle that is attached to syringes and put in the body. They gather different amounts of cells or fluid from the area that is suspicious Fine Needle Aspiration Screening tests are used to identify many types of cancers. In screening they can detect many cancer's in people who have no symptoms or signs. While other screenings can identify the stage cancer is at or where it can be found Screening In a core needle biopsy they use a needle that is a bit larger then the fine needle aspiration. It is hollow with a special tip to gather the tissue or cells from suspicious area . They would use this instead of the fine needle because they can get more tissues to be examined by pathologist Ultrasounds Imaging test are used to look at the bones and organs to see where the cancer is. This type of test is also able to determine if the cancer has spread to different parts of the body. Even though this test can spot the cancer it cannot diagnosis the type of cancer it is. Imaging Test A genetic test is a blood test that
can tell if you have a gene mutation which can increase
your risk of getting a cancer. If the test was positive then the doctor would watch your health careful and continue those test. If the test was negative then most likely you will have cancer too and the doctor will try to prevent it. Genetic Test An ultrasound uses sound waves to
create a picture of the internal organs A CT or CAT scan takes three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body using an x-ray machine. Then they use a computer to combine the images into a detailed, cross-sectional view that will show anything that is not normal or tumors. Sometimes they will inject the patient with special dye into their vein to get better detail picture. Cat or CT Scan
Computed Tomography Scan A bone scan uses a radioactive tracer to look inside of the bones. The radioactive tracer is substance that is injected into a patient’s vein.This substance is attracted to the bone. It gathers together by the bone and is detected by a special camera. If your bone looks gray to the camera its healthy but if it appears dark then it is cancer. Bone Scan Lung Cancer Blood Cancer
Leukemia Stomach Cancer An MRI is a scan using a large magnetic. It uses magnetic fields to make detailed images of the body. You may be injected with contrast medium in the vein to get a clearer picture of the inside. MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging An x-ray can create a detailed image of the inside of the body using
a small amount of radiation. It is useful to find and monitor some types of tumors. X-ray This types of biopsy is when the doctor will make an incision in the skin and will take some of the tissues so that they can be examined. They use this type if the needle biopsy to show that there could be cancer in that certain area. Sometimes they will use this method first to take tissues and diagnosis it. There are two types of surgical biopsy: Incisional and Excisional. Surgical Biopsy *Abdomen
* Brain
* Pelvis
* Thyroid Parathyroids Ultrasound are used for... Information Sites





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http://flickrhivemind.net/Tags/nurs/Recent Sources This type of surgical biopsy is used to remove part of the tissue to be examine. It may be used for soft tissues in muscle or fat to see if it is cancerous or not. Incisional This surgical biopsy is when the whole lump is removed. This biopsy was used more when they didn't have the fine needle aspiration. They will still use this method if your lymph nodes or breast enlarger but if the lump is still small and hasn't spread then they will remove the whole lump. Excisional A bone marrow is when they look at the cells in the bone marrow and take tissue to be examined.This is a very good way to find the problem. The physician will put a long hollow needle into the bone and remove some of the cells in the bone. The most common spots for bone marrow is the pelvic bone (lower part of back by the hip). This test can determine if they have a blood disorder or blood cancer and can find out if cancer has spread to the bone marrow
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