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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (23.1, 23.2)

Chapter Twenty-Three Sections One and Two
by

Tim Justice

on 29 February 2016

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Transcript of THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (23.1, 23.2)

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
(1789-1799)

BELL RINGER:

Answer the opening paragraph and questions on your Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution packet.

How do you know when a revolution goes too far and how do you stop it?
OBJECTIVES:
1. We will be able to identify the causes of the French Revolution and how they related to the Enlightenment.

2. We will be able to discuss the impact of the French Revolution on France's social structure.

3. We will be able to understand the impact of the French Revolution on France's government structure.
The Storm Gathers
A. France is close to
bankruptcy
, Louis thinks about
taxing
2nd Estate
1. 2nd Estate is outraged, calls
Estates-General
: assembly of representatives from each of the three estates
2. First time the Estates General has met in
175 yrs
B. 3rd Estate sees this as a chance to make reforms to the government
1. wanted each
member
(not estate) to have
1 vote
2. King refuses, 3rd Estate is not
pleased
3. Abbe Sieyes suggests that 3rd Estate form the
National Assembly
to make laws and reforms
4. 3rd Estate proclaims itself the National Assembly, a move towards
representative
gov’t
5.
Tennis Court
Oath: 3rd Estate pledges to write a new
constitution


C. Storming the Bastille-7/14/1789
1. Louis XVI senses trouble,
orders
other estates to take part in Nat. Assemb.
2. Sends Swiss guards to Paris, doesn’t trust
French guards
3. People believe Louis sent Swiss troops to massacre them
4. People storm the
Bastille
(French prison) looking for gunpowder, take control of it,
symbolizes
start of the
French Revolution
D.
The Great Fear-
Starts with Bastille
1. Peasants riot the streets of France: broke into nobles’ homes destroying old legal papers
2. Oct. 1789: 6,000 Parisian women riot over the price of bread, gather other peasants and break into the
Palace of Versailles
3. Demand Louis and Marie Antoinette, force them to move to Paris

II. Steps Towards
Reforming
the French Government
A. Calls made in Nat. Assem. to get rid of
Old Regime
B. Declaration of the Rights of Man (August 1789)
1. Stated the
new ideals
of France
2. Echoed Enlightenment thought giving all
men equal rights
(“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” becomes the Revolution’s motto)
3. Gave all men freedom of religion, speech, and
equal justice
4. Olympe de Gouges argues for
women’s rights
: shunned, later beheaded
C. Louis XVI tries to escape
Paris
but is
re- captured
at the French border
D. 1791 Reforms
1. France becomes a
limited

monarchy
: king has little power, gives
most powe
r to reps in the Legislative Assembly (creates laws, approves war)
E. After war with Austria and Prussia the Legislative Assembly sees
limited monarchy
is failing: get rid of the king and call for
new gov’t


III. The Reign of Terror (July 1793-July 1794)
A. mobs take over France during the summer of 1792, chaos ensues

B. Jacobins: most radical
political

club
, made up of middle class men and women, wanted to remove the king and establish a
republic
1. Paul Marat: editor of radical newspaper, wants to
behead
thousands as enemies of the Revolution
2. Georges Danton: another Jacobin leader, calls for
rights of peasants

C. September 1792: National Convention established, France is a republic, male citizens have voting rights, monarchy is
abolished
1. Louis XVI is tried for
treason
and beheaded at the guillotine: used to behead during the Rev.
2. National Convention initiates a military draft to continue fighting the war against Austria, Prussia, and now England, Holland, and Spain

D. Maximilien Robespierre takes control (Summer 1793)
1.
Erases
any trace of France’s monarchy: burn
remaining
images/symbols
, take royalty out of
playing cards, change names
2. Calendar reform: months renamed, no Sundays because religion was old fashioned and dangerous
3. all churches were closed
4. establishes the
Committee of Public Safety
: decided who was a threat to the Republic, anyone could be arrested, tried, and
beheaded
5. Robespierre basically becomes a
dictator
: says that a “Reign of Terror” would protect the ideas of the Revolution
6. Marie Antoinette, Danton, anyone who went against Robespierre was beheaded

E. 300,000 estimated to have been arrested, 40,000
killed altogether:
85%
of those killed were members of the
lower class
—ironic because they were the
reason
the Revolution began

F. 1794: National Convention tries to save themselves: turn on Robespierre, arrest,
and behead him
.

G. Public opinion changes: people are tired of living
in fear, without food
1. 1795: moderate leaders establish a new gov’t
2. power is placed in hands of the
upper middle

class
, called for a 2 house legislature, and an executive body of five men: the
directory


CTA:

"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way – in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only."

What comes to mind as you read this quote? What images do you see?
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