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Transcript of Poliomyelitis
Poliomyelitis is an infectious viral disease caused by a small icosahedral RNA polio virus that has no envelope. There are three known types of the virus: types 1, 2, and 3 with type one being the most severe. All three are members of the viral family of enteroviruses. The polio virus goes through a lytic cycle.
Most common victims to prey upon
Is it considered armed and dangerous?
There are two basic patterns to the polio virus: minor illness (abortive type) and major illness. The minor illness, mostly found in young children, accounts for 80% to 90% of all clinical infection. It is mild and does not involve the central nervous system being invaded. Symptoms of this illness tend to appear 3 to 5 days after exposure to the virus and include:
slight fever * Recovery time is 24 to 72 hours
The major illness, which can by paralytic or non-paralytic, usually have symptoms that appear without previous minor illness and generally affect those of an older age. Out of those infected:
10% develop severe headache
1% develop the most severe form of the virus. These people tend to have 2 to 3 symptom free days between the minor and major illness.
Those who have the major illness have headaches, and back and neck pain due to the motor nerves being invaded.
An estimated 350,000 cases of Polio were found in1988 and have since then decreased by over 99% to mere 223 reported cases in 2012.
Most effective weapons against the germ
There is no specific treatment for poliomyelitis except for symptomatic, a therapy that eases the symptoms of the disease without addressing the basic cause of it. The therapy is designed to make the patient feel more comfortable, which includes pain medication and hot packs to soothe muscles. It also includes intervention if the muscles used for breathing fail. Rest on a firm bed is also indicated while the infection is active.
#1 part of managing paralytic polio during recovery is physical therapy.
Hideout of the culprit
The polio virus is most commonly found in the water and food of developing countries due to crowded living conditions and poor hygiene practices.
How does it attack?
Most common injury done to victims
The polio virus most commonly infects young children( five years and younger), however older children and adults can be infected as well. Some risk factor for this paralytic illness is:
abnormalities in the immune system, and
a recent episode of excessively strenuous exercise concurrent with the onset of the central nervous phase ( where the virus reaches the central nervous system)
Number of victims
The most common injury to victims is paralysis, or the loss of ability to make one or more body parts move voluntarily due to muscle or nerve damage.
Those who suffer from the minor illness or simple aseptic meningitis tend to make a complete recovery.
Of those who suffer from major illness: 50% make a complete recovery, 25% have slight disability, and 25% have permanent or serious disability.
Approximately 1% of the people who suffer from major illness die.
There are two types of vaccines for poliomyelitis, however one has rarely been used after 2000.
The Salk Vaccine- consists of 3 series or shots given under the skin.
1st is given at 2 months of age
2nd shot is given at 4 months of age
3rd shot is given anytime between 6 to 18 months of age.
A fourth shot can be given between 4 to 6 years of age as a booster shot.
How does it spread?
The polio virus spreads primarily through a fecal-oral route in poor sanitary conditions. The virus can also be spread by direct contact with an infected individual. The virus can be transmitted as long as the virus is present in the throat or feces of an individual.
When the virus enters the body, it goes to the intestine and from there it leaks into the blood through nerves. It can then attack the brain and the central nervous system. The cells of the spinal chord can get damaged by the virus, which can cause the nerve cells to no longer be usable, leaving the individual paralyzed.
By Brianna Gutierrez