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Transcript of HONEY
- Honey comes from the nectar of flowers and is made by insects (usually bees)
o Different nectar and different insects mean different “honey varietals”
- Honey varietals vary in color, flavor, and odor
o Examples include avocado honey, blueberry honey, and sunflower honey
by Jersey Deng and Carmen Yung
Ways of Processing Honey
- Honey in its natural state can be described as:
o Varietal (monofloral) honey
o Raw honey
o Comb honey
- You can process it by...
o Straining it → Strained/filtered honey
o Finely filtering it → Ultrafiltered honey
o Blending w/ other varietal honeys → Blended honey
o Pasteurizing it → Pasteurized honey
...to create your typical supermarket honey
- How bees make honey
o Bees swallow nectar and bring it back to the hive.
o Enzymes in a bee’s “honey stomach” (separate from its regular stomach) change the nectar’s composition.
o Modified nectar is regurgitated into honeycomb and dehydrated as other bees fan air in the hive.
o Honeycomb is covered with wax.
- How humans collect honey
o Scrape off wax caps to expose
raw honey underneath
- The chemistry underlying honey production
o Nectar is mostly sucrose mixed w/ water
o Invertase in honey stomach converts sucrose into fructose and glucose
- Composition of honey
o A bit of sucrose
o Other disaccharides & oligosaccharides
o And some organic acids (gluconic acid, H2O2) for antimicrobial purposes
- Indefinite shelf-life from high sugar content
- Store in cool places, away from sunlight and sealed
- Does not need to be in refrigerator or freezer
- Re-liquify crystallized honey by reheating in jar in a pan of hot water, stirring
o Do not overheat, in case of caramelization
Applications of Honey
- Breaks up fats & accumulated fats
- Substitute for sugar in recipes
- 2x as sweet as table sugar
o Can reduce use of sugar by ⅓ to ½ in recipes
Applications in Baking
- Honey is 18% water-->Reduce liquids used in recipes by ⅛
- Lower oven temperatures by 25 degrees
- Absorbs and retains moisture
- Absorbed into the bloodstream - quick energy boost
- Darker honeys have more nutrients
- Antibacterial topical treatment for burns and ulcers - osmotic properties
- Produces hydrogen peroxide
- Honey is not recommended for babies because can carry C. botulinum spores
USDA Honey Grading
- Voluntary system
- Standard for filtered honey and strained honey
- Graded on:
o Moisture content
o Absence of defects
o Flavor & aroma
o Clarity (for filtered honey)
- U.S. Grade A: minimum of 90 points
- U.S. Grade B: minimum of 80 points
- U.S. Grade C: minimum of 70 points