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Group 22- G4 Presentation

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Kelly Zhang

on 12 March 2015

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Transcript of Group 22- G4 Presentation

The Top 3 Methods of Prevention
Immediate method of buttressing the toe
Long-term method of planting and preserving vegetation
Additional prevention- warning systems and education

Relation to the IB Sciences
What are the most effective and cost-efficient landslide prevention methods for developing nations?
Long Term (Planting and Preserving Vegetation)
Planting vegetation reduces the infiltration and runoff in the soil, caused by precipitation
Plants take up water from their roots, which they use for natural life processes
Some water also leaves the plant through transpiration
More vegetation also prevents erosion
The roots binds soil particles together to prevent movement
This stabilizes the slope

Warning System
Landslides may occur at any size, sometimes being too large to be prevented
A warning system should always be developed to ensure the safety of civilians in an emergency state
An effective warning system consists of:
Reliable design - extensometers and sensors
Continuous monitoring & forecast - multiple cameras
Educating the civilians - develop programs

Landslides and Prevention
Group 22 - Group 4 Project
By: Xiaoying Qin, Jennifer Wong, Stephanie Xue and Kelly Zhang

Introduction to Landslides
Definition of a Landslide

Types of Landslides
Debris flow
Debris avalanche
A general term for the down slope movement of a mass of bedrock and/or a soil mixture
Physically hazardous to the human population
Changes the Earth's surface
Destroys the natural habitats of organisms
Negatively impacts the economy

Most landslides are triggered by natural causes
Heavy rainfall and ponding of water
Landslides are also triggered by human impacts:
Unregulated mining, industry, or road construction

Causes of Landslides
Factors relating to physics in landslides:
Slope ratios
Angles of slope
Speeds of Landslides
Forces that counteract mass movements
Downward moving forces of landslides

Natural habitat of many species are destroyed
Vegetation uprooted
Topsoil is destroyed and soil is loosened
Difficult for plants to regrow
Rocks and soil crush vegetation, organisms, and enter bodies of water, disrupting wildlife
Reduces space, light, and changes water pH
Reduced populations affect the food chain, causing species to deteriorate
When the downward force of the mass on the slope overcomes that of friction and opposing forces, then a landslide can occur.
Table 1: The Common Stable Slope Ratios and Angles of Slope
Silicates form the basis of most sand, rocks and soil
Silicon and oxygen are the most common elements
These two elements bond to form the bases for silicates

Composed of multiple tetrahedrals with Si as the central ion surrounded by four O ions.
Held together with atoms of other elements
Figure 1: The forces of friction on a mass on a slope
Intermolecular forces present:
London dispersion
Our Position
Chemical Soil Bonds
Immediate Solution - Buttressing the Toe
Increases the weight at the bottom of the slope, (the toe)
Dirt and sediment are taken from the head of the slope and placed at the bottom
Decreases the downward forces that cause a landslide
Changes the slope ratio to become less steep and more stable.
Benches and placements of buttressing fills will be required in this process
Villagers and volunteers can work together

The vegetation acts like a cover for the soil which reduces saturation
Reduces exposure of the soil to the wind
Inexpensive since it requires less technology
Maintains and builds the natural habitats of organisms
Takes more time since mature trees can take years to grow

Long Term (Planting and Preserving Vegetation)
Huge factor in preparing for a landslide
Philippines incident 2012 in Mindanao, due to the lack of education on the dangers, many did not evacuate even with the warning
An education system should be incorporated into school systems, as well as mandatory training systems for adults
Examples of Buttresses
Case Study
Conclusion and Summary
In 2012, Mindanao, Philippines, 25 lives were lost to a landslide.
The heavy mining in the area, along with intense rainfall that occurred for days

What are the most effective and cost-efficient landslide prevention methods for developing nations?
Hundreds of thousands of people are affected by landslides each year and the methods of landslide prevention we discussed, both long-term, planting and preserving vegetation and immediate, buttressing the toe will be cost-effective ways to prevent landslides. In addition, warning systems and education can further help protect people in developing nations.
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The rainfall and monsoon like weather could not have been prevented
Buttressing the toe and replanting vegetation in the area could have helped decrease the likelihood of the event.
More regulation for mining, in this case would have also helped.
Warning systems and especially education could have also convinced the locals of the deadly consequences

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Landslide Prone Areas Around the World
Book References
Other References
Mountainous regions, earthquake prone areas, places with constant, heavy rainfall, areas with coarse soil, and locations that lack vegetation
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