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Scientific Variables Game

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Nathaniel Benson

on 21 August 2013

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Transcript of Scientific Variables Game

Bellwork, 8/22
1) What is the purpose of an experiment?
2) Why would scientists repeat an experiment, even if they got the result they were expecting?
Notes!!! Oh no!!!!
When you add or change the INDEPENDANT VARIABLE...
the DEPENDANT VARIABLE changes as a result.
EXPERIMENT #1

EXPERIMENT #2

EXPERIMENT #3

EXPERIMENT #4

EXPERIMENT #5

EXPERIMENT #6

EXPERIMENT #7

EXPERIMENT #8

EXPERIMENT #9
SCIENCE!?!?!?!?!?!
IS THAT???
"a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, and the organized body of knowledge gained through such research."
Dictionary sez:
Questions 1-5
Questions 11-20
Questions 6-9
Question #5
Design THREE (3) experiments, explaining the independant variables, dependant variables and controls in each.
"Nasal Ranger"
Olfactometer
"If the PS3 is more popular than the Nintendo Wii, then it should sell more."
"The Playstation 3 is more popular than the Nintendo Wii."
How would you test this claim?
Question #4
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
6. What is science best used for?
7. What are 5 ways you can observe things without using any tools?
8. What is the purpose of a hypothesis?
9. How would you test this claim? "Heavier objects will fall through the air faster than light objects."
10. What is the difference between a control and a variable?
11. What is a claim that could NOT be verified by the scientific method? What does this tell you about that claim?
questions of the day, continued
Control Group
Variable
Independant Variable = Soil Quality.

Dependant Variable = Plant Growth.

Control Group = Good Soil.
"Flowers in poor soil grow slower than good soil"
"If pumpkins soaked in bleach rot slower than pumpkins soaked in vaseline, then vaselne soaked pumpkins will spoil sooner."
almost there!!!!
"If listening to music improves grades, then students who listen to music while studying should get better grades than those who don't."
Work in groups of no more than 6.

Confused? Have a question? WORK TOGETHER for the answer first, THEN ask Mr. Benson.

Do Parts A, B, and C ONLY.
Volume of Cylinder = 2 * pi * radius * height

Use the funnels to reduce spills, please.

Label your questions from today as QUESTIONS OF THE DAY - 8/24/10 and turn them in with your lab sheet when you are finished.
Lab #1 - Volume Lab
Cool Down #2
1. Why would something like "pizza is better than tacos" or "rap music is more awesome than metal music" be a bad claim to use for a hypothesis?

2. Give 2 more examples of a statement that you should not use as a basis for an experiment.

3. Give 2 examples of claims/statements that you COULD use as a basis for an experiment.
Usually, you make observations with your...
You can also use tools to help you observe things that you can't with your senses alone. Tools like...
1. Ask a question:
2. Create a hypothesis:
3. Do background research:
4. Create an experiment:
5. Analyze Data
6. Come to conclusion:

Hypothesis is right
Hypothesis is wrong

Report Results!
Make an observation
An "If, then" statement.
A logical explanation.
Testable.
Able to explain some observation.
Logically consistent with existing data.
Simplifying the problem, not making it harder.
Why do classes that listen to music have higher grades?
Science:
Scientific Method:
Hypothesis:
Experiment:
Data/Evidence:
Theory/Law:
Variable:
Create-a-definition!!
But how do you DO science?
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Important Principles of Science
Objectivity
Falsifiability
Skepticism
Repetition
Thermal Imaging
Chemical sensors
Microphones
Observation 1:
"The playstation 3 seems to be pretty popular."
Question 1:




Question 2:




Question 3:



Question 4:



Question 5:



Question 6:



Question 7:





Question 8:





Question 9:
Is the PS3 more popular than the Wii?
Observation 2:
"When I listen to music while studying, I do better on tests."
Observation 3:
"Doughnuts are SOOOOO GOOOOOOOOD."
Observation 5
It seems like babies do not like sand castles.
Observation 6
Observation 4
"My hair always looks different in the morning."
"Things that are dropped at the same time seem to hit the ground at different times."
Observation 7
"I'm always grumpy on Mondays."
Are doughnuts good for you?
What causes bed head?
Do babies tend to like sand castles?
Does gravity effect all objects the same?
Why are super villains grouchy on Monday?
Hypothesis #1:
Hypothesis #4:
Hypothesis #3:
Hypothesis #2:
Hypothesis #5:
A good Hypothesis should ALWAYS be....
Hypothesis #7:
Hypothesis #6:
?
?
?
"If bed head is caused by twisting and turning at night, then people who do not move while sleeping should not get it."
"If babies like sandcastles, then they should giggle when they see them instead of smashing them."
Research #1:


Research #2:


Research #3:


Research #4:


Research #5:


Research #6:


Research #7:

Research #8:

Research #9:
Which is a better preservative: vaseline or bleach?
Smaller pidgins seem to get caught by cats more often.
Observation 9
Observation 8
"My pumpkins always spoil before my neighbors."
Do big pidgins get eaten less often than small ones?
Hypothesis #9:
Hypothesis #8:
"If I inject certain pidgeons with steroids, then they will be eaten less often than small ones."
No prior research.

No prior research.

?
No prior research.
No prior research.
#10
Experiments are for...
TYPES OF VARIABLES
Independant Variable: ?
Dependant Variable: ?
Control: ?
Independant Variable:
Dependant Variable:
Control:
Independant Variable:
Dependant Variable:
Control:
Independant Variable:
Dependant Variable:
Control:
Independant Variable:
Dependant Variable:
Control:
Independant Variable: ?
Dependant Variable: ?
Control: ?
No experiment necessary!
No experiment necessary!
No experiment necessary!
Chemicals added.
Rate of rotting.
Pumpkins with no preservatives.
Amount of sleep.
Mood.
Villains with plenty of sleep.
Sand castles.
Baby reactions.
Baby with no sand castle.
Music.
Grades.
Class with no music.
I.V.
D.V.
Control
I.V.
D.V.
Control
I.V.
D.V.
Control
Data #1
Data #2
Data #3
Data #4
Data #5
Data #6
Data #7
Data #8
Data #9

See research!
See research!
See research!
The Scientific Method:

IT WORKS!!!

Note policy:
Start
Get a new idea.
Perform some EXPERIMENTS
Does the evidence support the idea?
Bad Idea.
Use theory to better understand the universe!
Discover new evidence. Can the theory be modified to explain the new evidence?
No...
Yes!
No!
Yes...
Improve theory
Revolution!
Why does
science work?
You use...
Not all questions can be answered by experiments.
Some can only be answered by performing observations.

Experiments that cannot be controlled in a lab are called OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES.
Good controlled experiments have...
Little or no influence from the outside world.
A control (something to test against; a representation of what is usually happening naturally)
An independant variable (the part of the experiment you are testing the effects of)
A dependant variable (the changes you are measuring)
Control: What usually happens
OR
What you are testing AGAINST.
An experiment WITHOUT the independent variable.
Independent Variable: The thing YOU (the scientist) change.
Dependent Variable: The thing you are measuring.
The thing that is changing because you added the independent variable.
70% of non-music listeners have passing grades. 80% of music listeners have passing grades.
Restless sleepers have bed-head 6 out of 7 nights. Non-restless sleepers have bed-head 6 out of 7 nights.
#25
In the presence of sand-castles, 100% of babies became enraged and destroyed them.
(do the scientific method, like this guy)
#30
I.V.
D.V.
Control
LETS GET OUR


SCIENCE ON

Fields of science that use observations...
Astronomy
Paleontology
Economics
Sociology
Create a new hypothesis
Look at current/discover new evidence
Does evidence support the hypothesis?
Improve existing theory
No
Yes
Observational Scientific Method
Why the scientific method?
1. Why is objectivity important when constructing an experiment?
(2 paragraphs)

2. Why do scientists reproduce experiments?
(2 paragraphs)

3. What is "accuracy?" Why is it important to strive for accurate data in an experiment?
(2 paragraphs)
Brainstorm: What are the parts of the scientific method?
Create a scientific method flow chart!
You have 5 minutes!!!
How is a theory different from a hypothesis?
Peer Review
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Control
Constant
Key Terms:
Why does science work?
Accuracy and Precision lab, p.12
(15 mins)
Constant: The parts of the experiment that are the same in the control group, and the experimental group.
Identify the variables!
Small group activity.
On your group white board, write the answer to the question.
Each correct answer is worth one point.
The group with the highest score wins a prize!
Please copy this chart into your notebook…
Self Recognitions in Apes Experiment
Constant: Same paint, same type of ape, same distance from mirror
Hypothesis: If we mark an older apes’s face, and apes are capable of self recognition, they will recognize themselves.
Dependent Variable:
Control:
Independent Variable:
Hypothesis: If ________________, then_____________________.
Asch Conformity Experiment
Independent Variable: Group or no group
Hypothesis: If the majority of people in a group answer a question incorrectly, then an individual will also respond incorrectly.
Dependent Variable:
Hammer & Feather in a Vaccuum Experiment
Independent Variable: Air or no air
Hypothesis: If we take away air resistance, then the materials will fall at the same speed.
Dependent Variable:
Control: Experiment where you drop a feather and hammer in air.
Dependent Variable:
Independent Variable: Number of nails
Hypothesis: If we increase the number of nails, then the balloon will not pop.
Constant:
Balloon & Bed of Nails Experiment
The Milgram Obedience to Authority Experiment
Hypothesis:
Independent Variable: Authority figure
Dependent Variable:
Control: Do the experiment with no authority figure present.
Constant:
#1
#2
#3
#4
#5
Materials: Notebook + Pencil/Pen, Dry erase board + Marker
Cause and Effect
I.V.
D.V.
In a hypothesis, the "if" part is the I.V.
The "then" part is the D.V.
If I throw golf balls at Mr. Benson,
then I will get in trouble.

If I yawn in a crowd,
then other people should start yawning.

If I make duck sounds,
then ducks should fly towards me.

If I tickle an alligator,
then he should start laughing.
cause
effect
I.V.
D.V.
IF
THEN
The Yawning Experiment
Hypothesis:
Independent Variable:
Dependent Variable:
Control:
Constant: Yawning, group of people
#6
Pavlov's Experiment
Hypothesis:
Independent Variable:
Dependent Variable:
Control:
Constant:
#7
Full transcript