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Copy of Samenvatting Morrison, Ross, Kalman & Kemp (2011)
Transcript of Copy of Samenvatting Morrison, Ross, Kalman & Kemp (2011)
- not too many questions
(sample of objectives) limited effectiveness
learning directions &
questions are more effective Guidelines - mager style - not without
conditions or criteria
- list <7 items
- undertandable language -summary
- how text will help learner
- describe relevance to
learner's goals - understandable leanguage
- content covered included
- learner unfamiliar with
content: expository, incl
- learner somewhat familiar:
comparative, old-new ideas Teunissen 2.2.2
over aansluiters vgl. Teunissen
hst 2 Inleiding Hst 8 8. Message design for text 3 critical features interface learner - text
meaning 'pointer words'
also see typografic signals 5 common text structures
both explicit & typographical signalling - signal the text's schema
- coherent text structure
- match between content & learners background Typographical signals - headings (change of topic &message abt content)
- typographical variations (be reticent, consistent
& professional) Pictures and graphics - decoration
- representation (add to familiar info)
- organizational (add coherence)
- interpretative (add comprehensibility)
- transformational (add mnemonic) 8. ID Process &
Quality management selecting preinstructional strategy - consider learner analysis, function, content structure, task attibutes (see table 8-1)
- remember it is an interface: fit between learner and strategy for preparing them for the content message design - identify text structures table 8-2
- design a template (legibility & attractiveness to learner)
- select pictures (copy right, accurateness) vgl Teunissen
hst 2.3, 3.3, 4.2, 4.3 Teunissen 4.3 Teunissen 4.2 Teunissen 2.3 Hst 9 Hst 7 Hst 10 Hst 11 College - niet in boek Leertheorie why, who and what, etz ID makes learning more effective and efficient and less difficult
- check: is training the answer?
- less costs
- less time away from job
- teachers in formal education should know how to a certain extent SME: content driven, what to cover?
ID: what is the problem? establish what KSC are needed to solve it (needs to know, not nice to know)
Human performance technology: also non-training solutions to problem
Evaluator: qualified for pre-/posttest, interpreting data etc (Quality Assurance) Teunissen Dick and Carey (1990) wel bepaalde volgorde
van objectives via assessment naar instructional strategy Hst 1 Typisch Morrison, Ross, Kalman - Cyclisch, niet alle fases zijn altijd relevant
- Gaat uit van lerende ipv leerstof (voorkomt bv dat lagere niveaus slap aftreksel zijn van universitair niveau)
- Evaluatie door hele cyclus heen ipv op eind
- Projectmanagement meegenomen
(- Kookboek: how to checklist. Meer diepgang mogelijk) who? why? what? Hst 2 Is the problem correctly identified?
What causes the problem?
Is instruction the answer? When assess problem? - introduction of new product
- responding to existing performance problem
- company feels need to develop staff in order to grow
- strategy development, info to make decisions Needs assessment Why? 1. identifies needs for job/task & problem affecting performance
2. identifies critical needs, that have significant impact on performance
3. sets priorities fo selectiing an intervention
4. provides baseline data to assess effectiveness of instruction Types of needs How to? one job/audience is most effective type of needs analyzed
type of data needed
how to collect determine method as early as possible output = of needs criteria were determined in phase I
- economic value
- impact (number of people affected)
- frequency indication
- ranking scale
- or input for goal analysis chapters identify problems Goal analysis Why? 1. quicker and cheaper than needs analysis
2. needs are already clear
3. prioritize/detail outcomes of earlier needs analysis
How to? starts with suggested problem
develops goals for instruction start conclusion discussion 1. identify aims 2. set goals 3. refine goals several for each aim
that identify behaviour
include action verb delete duplicates
specify vague 4. rank goals by ...
cost saving etc. 5. refine again identify discrepancies between goals and existing performance 6. final ranking - how critical is each goal?
- overall effect of goal group of 4-12 individuals
who are familiar with the problem Compare Performance assessment Causes & solutions 1. check the (perceived) problem
2. find the source Hst 3 Learner characteristics Context analysis Why? familiar context enhances student attitudes and achievement, especially in problem-based learning and anchored instruction Orienting context learner characteristics
- (personal) goals? (certificate? KSC?)
- perceived utility?
- perceived accountability for results Instructional context lighting, noise, temperature, seating, accomodation, equipment, transportation, scheduling Transfer context create environment that promotes application of newly learned KSC
- perceived usefullness
- access to tools
- support How to? Survey - observation - interview - collect data
- analyze opportunities and limitations for design an delivery of training identify opportunities and limitations Hst 4 Define the content required to solve performance problem
SME works through each step: fine tuning
ID can view content from learners' perspective -> teaching strategies Topic analysis Level of detail depends on learner characteristics like entry level
- from learner charachteristics analysis
- SME info about learners Procedural analysis step by step
both observable and unobservable behaviours 1. what does the learner do? 2. what does the learner need to know to do this step? 3. What cues tell the learner that there is a problem, the step is done or a different step is needed? identify the action the learner must perform
action = physical or mental what knowlegde is neccesary?
what knowlegde about location/orientation of physical components? going beyond -> cognitive procedures GOMS Goals, Operators, Methods, Selection rules ACTA Applied Cognitive Task Analysis 1. SME gives 6 broader steps 2. knowledge audit - examples of task 3. simulation interview -
how to solve realistic problem? 4. integration -
cognitive demands table Critical incident 1. conditions before - during - after 2. what did you do? 3. how did this incident help you to or prevent you from reaching your goal? where did it orrcur?
when did it occur?
who was involved?
what equipment was used? physically?
what did you say to whom?
what did you think? ask for 3 successes and 3 failures good for interpersonal skills
and attitudes for more complex and vaiable tasks to compare different approaches HC2 Traditioneel vs e-book geschiedenis kenmerken Hst 5 Niveaus doelen HC2 Cognitieve domein behaviouristisch behaviouristisch Classifying objectives Mager & Beach p.124 Speech (easy-moderate-difficult)
Problem solving (...) Merrill Facts
Attitude recall apply X Lezen Leermiddelen HC 4