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Common Chimpanzees

Science Primate Project
by

Han Sohn

on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of Common Chimpanzees

Social Behaviors/Interactions
Specific Social Behaviors
Chimpanzees' Habitat and Lifestyle
Mating.

If males want to mate with a female, he might spread his legs and find himself in piloerection.
Social behaviors include, gazing at the female (an invite) or shaking branches above (for females to come in).
If those don't work, the male might stomp on his feet/knuckles (for females attention)

May 6, 2014
By: Han Sohn
Robust Chimpanzees --- Pan Troglodytes
Locomotion/Arm + Leg Length
Structures, Functions, and Adaptations
Threat to Chimpanzee Population
Common Chimpanzees
Bibliography: Research

"About Chimpanzees." Jane Goodall Institute of Canada. Jane Goodall Institute of Canada, n.d. Web. <http://www.janegoodall.ca/about-chimp-behaviour-social-organization.php>.

"Chimp Facts." Save the Chimps. Save the Chimps, n.d. Web. <http://www.savethechimps.org/about-us/chimp-facts/>.

"Chimpanzee." OneKind. OneKind, n.d. Web. <http://www.onekind.org/be_inspired/animals_a_z/chimpanzee/>.

"Common Chimpanzee." Rainforest Animals. Rainforest Animals, n.d. Web. <http://www.rainforestanimals.net/rainforestanimal/commonchimpanzee.html>.

Lang, Kristina Cawthon. "Chimpanzee: Pan Troglodytes." Primate Factsheets: Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology. Ed. Elaine Videan. Kristina Cawthon Lang, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2014. <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/chimpanzee>.

"National Geographic: Chimpanzees." National Geographic. National Geographic, n.d. Web. <http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/chimpanzee/>.

"Pan Troglodytes - Chimpanzee." Tree of Life. Tree of Life, n.d. Web. <http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=4718>.

"Pan Troglodytes." The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, n.d. Web. <http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15933/0>.

Debbie. "Chimpanzee Teeth." Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest. CSNW, 30 July 2013. Web. 05 May 2014. <https://www.chimpsanctuarynw.org/blog/2013/07/chimpanzee-teeth/>. (chimpanzee face section)
Hands+ Feet + Thumbs
Tails or not...
Face
Arms are longer than legs (based on height of chimpanzee, their arm span is about 1.5 times their particular height)

Adapted quadrupedalism, bipedalism,
and
brachiation
Their arms much longer than their legs, enable them to swing from branch to branch, brachiation.
Chimps have robust bodies and strong arms helping them to swing through trees.
Because of bipedalism, they have free hands to carry tools with them
eg.
banging sticks on the ground to scare other unwanted species

Did you Know?
In comparison, mature chimpanzees’ dense bones and muscle tissues give them the upper body strength 8 to 10 times stronger than a humans’.



Brachiation
Chimpanzees have hands easily comparable to humans'

Hands are longer than ours.
Opposable thumbs and 4 long, thin fingers.
Feet have 5 toes including 1 big opposable toe.
Human-like hands and feet are adapted to social grooming and easily manipulating/grasping objects such as... when eating with twigs.

Quadrupedalism
Human-like Hands
"Flexible" hands using twig to reach insects for food
Chimps don't have tails!

Baby chimps have white tail tufts that disappear when older.
Because tails don't serve any function to chimps, they don't own tails.
Most primates of the monkey species own tails prehensile or not; chimpanzees are species of the Great Apes, so as a result, they are closely related to apes, gorillas, and even us, humans!

Chimpanzees' body and facial features include...

Body fur are known to be black.
Born with pale faces.
Chimps' faces and tails darken as they age.
Two ears on side of head and white beards for both males
and
females.
Noses seem flat and nostrils open sideways
About 32 teeth; have same dentition pattern (same # of teeth, same order across)
same dentition pattern
Canine teeth are for threat; can intimidate and warn enemies to stay away.
Molars are for crushing food.
Chimps' eyes are "fixed" (they move like ours)
Adult Female Chimpanzee
Juvenile Chimpanzee
Molars
Canine

Central Incisor


Family Groupings

Chimps live in groups called communities.
One community usually holds 40-60 individuals.
Most individual chimps switch groups, but long lasting family and other relationships can develop.
Other individuals like siblings and male friends, tend to travel together more.
Overall, the group is spread across everywhere, so chimps keep contact with others through a distance call (the pant hoot).

Pant Hooting
Small community

Mating/Sexual Dimorphism

Males and females often have a connection with friendship, before the female might cooperative with the male.
Relationships between males and females often last long.
Dominant males have a higher chance of getting to females, but low ranking males can lead females away
Females will be isolated by males until the stage of the fertile cycle.
If females are in the “correct” point of their cycle, they'll be attracted to males. Swelling and color change of their female part (6 days) is one sign.



A couple differences between male and female chimpanzees
are...

Male chimpanzees tend to weigh more than females.
In the wild, on average, they are 88.2-132 lb (40-60 kg) and females are usually 70.5-104 lb (37-47 kg).
In captivity, males weigh about 80 kg and females about 68 kg.
A similar average height of about 2.68 ft.
Female
with genital swelling (ready to mate)
Male
eating fruit, while walking bipedalism
Social Hierachy

Age is an important factor, taking part in dominance hierarchies for
males
.
Often, if a male is dominant, they will be between the ages of 20-26
Other factors determining chimps social hierarchy include, their physical fitness, the level of aggression, their fighting ability, intelligence, and their capability to form groups.
The social hierarchy of chimps is maintained or changed through grooming, communication, or interactions with others.

Threats.

Rather than attacks inside a specific chimp’s community, it is usually solved through threats.
Most threat indicators include chimp’s vocalization such as, screeching.
Other threats might be, tipping heads, making gestures (hitting motion), flapping hands in the air, swaying on branches, throwing objects, and charging at each other.
Flapping hands in the air

Arboreal vs. Terrestrial

In The Wild.

Chimpanzees are both terrestrial and arboreal.
The amount of time chimpanzees spend on the ground depends whether they are male or female.
On average, males travel about 4.9 km/day, while females travel 3 km/day.
In The Zoo.
Not so sure. The habitat is not as wide or spread out then in the wild (not as many trees than in the wild).
The chimps at the zoo have a "restriction" of their habitat (less trees, more land).
The trees are mostly replaced by chunks of wood; in the wild, chimps live in trees, but at the zoo, there hardly are any trees.
So, the chimps at the zoo might be more arboreal
only
because of this environment.
v.s.
WILD
ZOO
Chimpanzees have distributed to...

About 22 countries.
Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.
Wild population is estimated to100,000-200,000.
About 250 chimpanzees remain in zoos and 1,200 in research facilities.
Age Span

Wild: 40-45 years
Captivity: Up to 60 years
WILD:
Chimpanzees' diet consists of...

Omnivorous.
Plant diet consists of leaves, fruit, seeds, tree bark,
Plant bulbs, plant shoots, and flowers.
Chimpanzees can spend time in trees searching for food.
Tools such as, twigs help get termites or ants.
Meat diet includes, termites, ants, and small animals (young monkeys).
In a group, a hunter might share some portion of meat to other members (usually result of begging behavior).
Meat is typically favored among chimps, but only less than 2% of meat makes up their diet.
ZOO:
Chimpanzees' diet consists of...

Omnivorous.
My thoughts:
Chimpanzees don't find any meat to eat, other than insects.
Other animals aren’t put together at the zoo, (they are divided separately) chimps probably don’t find other small animals.
Even though there diet is omnivorous at zoo, they probably only eat plants and insects.
A small fruit puzzle box divided in 3 sections for the chimps to use and eat.
Different in the wild. I see at the zoo, they try to keep the chimps active and less bored with this box, mentally.
In the wild, chimps would interact a lot more and swing in trees to keep themselves satisfied.
Chimpanzee'
red list
status

Chimpanzees are currently endangered.
Threats

Chimpanzees’ habitat destruction
Severe reduction of chimpanzee habitats.
80% of region’s forest has already been lost.
Severe reduction of chimpanzee habitats.
Increased accessibility to remote areas.

Poaching of chimpanzees.
1 to 3% of bushmeat sold in urban markets (commercial hunting).
Illegal pet trade across Africa (capture infants from mothers).
For medicine purposes.
Caught in snared for crop protection (meant for baboons, cane rats)

Disease to chimpanzees
Similarities between humans and chimpanzees;effected by human infectious diseaseses.
Frequency rises as human population increases.
Eg.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever and repeated epidemics caused decline

Portrait of my Focal Animal
Fruit Puzzle Box
In the wild...

Variety of different habitats.
Dry savannas, evergreen rain forests...
Montane forests, or swamp forests.
Not nocturnal, they are diurnal.
Build nests like beds, for sleep.
Nests are located high in trees; made of plants (leaves).
Built by a mother, she'll share nest with baby
Adults and juveniles sleep alone in their nests.
Young chimps need “play time”.
Helps learn about techniques for survival.
Playtime includes, tickling, chasing, wrestling, or occuring laughter.

At the zoo...
Zookeepers are trying hard to make chimps feel in the wild.
Observations:
Big, main bundle of branches for shade for chimps, swinging, eating, sleeping.
Some long leaves + branches to swing on.
Lots of twigs, so (like in the wild) chimps can reach and eat insects.


Strongest Bond

The strongest family bond is a mother chimp and her baby.
Not only because mothers are responsible for taking care of her offspring, but also because they are together for 7 years.
When 6 months old, the chimp rides on its mothers back.

Chimp on mother's back, at the zoo
Social Behaviors at ZOO


Calls
Food sharing or feeding
Holding hands/limbs/bodies
Nursing
Huddling
Incomplete charages
Movement Study

Mother-Baby

The strongest family bond is a mother chimp and her baby.
Not only because mothers are responsible for taking care of her offspring, but also because they are together for 7 years.
When 6 months old, the chimp rides on its mothers back.

Chimp on mother's back, at the zoo
Habitat, Wandering, and Distribution

In the wild... At the zoo...
Resources:
Enough food for chimps, a difference in wild.
At zoo, some chimps seemed bored (doing nothing, lying on the ground or sitting in the shade)
In wild, they would search for food, build nests, and “explore” the forest.
At zoo, these factors are "limited".
Chimps think more mentally such as, with puzzle box than physically in wild when trying to eat.
At zoo, chimps might not build sleep nests. In wild, they look for a tree, but at zoo they only have 1 or 2 suitable trees.
If chimps were to “explore” the zoo forest, the size of chimp’s habitat is restricted, so they can’t go very far.
Mother chimpanzee with two children in sleep nest
Bibliography: Photos

Three Chimpanzees Swinging From Vines. Digital image. Mail Online. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/01/16/article-0-03EB65F90000044D-171_468x329.jpg>.

"Group of Chimps Traveling through Forest." Jane Goodall's Wild Chimpanzees. Michael Neugebauer, n.d. Web. <http://www.wildchimpanzees.org/media/photo_gallery_jpg/goodall_39.jpg>.


Neugebauer, Michael. "Hands of Adult Chimpanzee." Jane Goodall's Wild Chimpanzees. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.wildchimpanzees.org/media/photo_gallery_jpg/goodall_43.jpg>.


Neugebauer, Michael. "Chimpanzee Showing It's Teeth." Jane Goodall's Wild Chimpanzees. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.wildchimpanzees.org/media/photo_gallery_jpg/goodall_46.jpg>.


Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.wildchimpanzees.org/media/photo_gallery_jpg/goodall_40.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.wildchimpanzees.org/media/photo_gallery_jpg/frodo-Image-3.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Pimu-injured1.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.wired.com/images_blogs/wiredscience/images/2008/10/13/chimps4.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://blog.lib.umn.edu/huber195/myblog/chimpanzee-photo.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://cdn2.arkive.org/media/B5/B52C2EE5-0B47-4E59-AACB-3A3AD34B41BD/Presentation.Large/Western-chimpanzee-female-with-genital-swelling.jpg>.

N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/1x9096312/chimpanzee_pan_troglodytes_male_eating_fruit_as_he_walks_bipedally_la_vallee_des_singes_primate__620509.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.janegoodall.ca/images/SolitaryActivity_18_APN.JPG>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://cdn0.cosmosmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/080619_chimp.jpg>.


Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://cdn1.arkive.org/media/5C/5C0A77D9-0CB9-43FB-9BC2-77F3A3507B18/Presentation.Large/Group-of-western-chimpanzees-using-rocks-to-crack-nuts.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_f98opUNuVXc/Sd21JZVM_QI/AAAAAAAAGd0/mRGREirm-iY/s400/chimpanzee+eating+monkey.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.mpg.de/1071221/zoom.jpg>.

Digital image. National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.natgeocreative.com/comp/MI/001/1235208.jpg>.

Zoo photos taken by my friend, Jean

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