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Emma Grund

on 4 November 2015

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Historical Data
Convection Currents
Thursday, October, 22, 2015
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Plate Boundaries Idenification
Identifying Plate Boundaries
Modern Data
Resulting Features or Events
Meteorologists, Alfred Wegener made the theory of continental drift in 1912 that explain how our continents are moving. This theory led us to the theory of plate tectonics, which we use today.
Convection currents are caused by the hot material at the deepest part of the mantle rising, cooling, then sinking again and then heating, rising and repeating over and over again. The Ring of Fire is an area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. Which is creating ocean trenches, volcanic belts. The horseshoe shape is created because of all the plate activity.
Geologist, Edward Bullard, was able to match the coasts of South America and Africa together like a puzzle in 1965. This shows that these two continents could have once been together.
Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi
Satellites have measured that plate tectonics are moving at a rate of about 2 to 5 centimeters per year. This shows that millions of years ago, they could have once been together, and are slowly drifting apart.
As tectonic plates slowly move away from each other, (divergent plates) the sea floor slowly spreads apart, often forming a mountain, or elevated area in the sea. This tells us that the Earth is always moving and probably has been for millions of years which means they could've been connected into one giant continent, and have moved so far apart, and gotten us to where we are today.
~There is a low population of just over 1,000 people.

~The large extent of the Richton salt mass suggests that significant design flexibility exists for a 160-million-barrel storage facility consisting of 16 ten million-barrel caverns.

The force that causes most plate movement is thermal convection. Thermal convection is where heat from the Earth's interior causes currents of hot rising magma and cooler sinking magma to flow, causing the plates to move along with it. Converging plate boundaries are formed when one or more techtonic plates is composed of oceanic crust. Divergent plate boundary are when plates are moving away from one another. This occurs above rising convection currents, the rising current pushes up on the bottom of the lithosphere, lifting it and flowing beneath it. Transform plate boundaries are located where two plates slide sideways past one another. The fracture zone that forms a transform plate boundry is known as a transform fault. Most transform faults are found in ocean.
Divergent plate boundaries are locations where plates are moving away from one another. This occurs during rising convection currents.The rising current pushes up on the bottom of the lithosphere, lifting it and flowing beneath it. When a Divergent boundary occurs beneath oceanic lithosphere, the rising convection below lifts the lithosphere producing a mid-ocean ridge. Forces stretch the lithoshere and produce and deep fissure. when the fissure opens, pressure is reduced on the super-heated mantle below. It responds by melting and the new magma flows into the fissure. The magma then solidifies and the process repeats itself.
An earthquake occurs when two tectonic plates move against each other (transform plate boundaries). When earthquakes occur they can be very severe and can do a lot of damage to the earth. Alaska is the most earthquake-prone state in the United States.
A geyser occurs when there is a vent, or hole, in the earths surface and every once in a while there is a column of hot air that is ejected from the geyser. The most famous geyser, is in Yellowstone National Park, in Wyoming. It is called 'Old Faithful'.
A volcano occurs when there is a rupture in earths surface and allows hot lava and magma to escape from the magma chamber. The volcano in Hawaii is called, Mauna Loa, and it is elevated 16,678 feet above ground.
~Millions of gallons of water are taken out of the Pascagoula River daily, and is only 30 miles away.

~Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi has already gone through this problem before in the 70's and 80's and everyone went against it.

By: Lizzie Bickar, Celeste Andrico, and Emma Grund
Quick Overview
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