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Europe's Environmental Concerns

World Geography Project Elyse, Niru, Clarissa, and Samantha
by

Topic Number2

on 24 January 2013

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Transcript of Europe's Environmental Concerns

Deforestation Acid Rain Pollution Recycling and Renewable Energy Closing Global Warming What is Global Warming? WHAT IS ACID RAIN?

Acid rain is produced when fossil fuels are burned in factories.

These acidic gases blow into the sky and mix with the rain and snow in clouds.

The rain then becomes acidic.

So basically, acid rain is rain that becomes acidic due to pollution in the air. Europe's Environmental Concerns What causes pollution? Negatives: Pollution
Global warming
Deforestation
Acid rain By Niru Ancha, Elyse Meyer, Clarissa Scott, and Samantha Merrifield Prehistoric Clearing Bibliography "Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change." Summaries of EU Legislation. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.

European Commission. "Forests." - Environment. European Commission, 16 Apr. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2013.
http://www.nytimes.com/2001/01/24/news/24iht-forests.2.t.html?pagewanted=all

James, Barry. "Spreading Deforestation Is Both Acknowledged and Ignored : Europe's Decaying Ecosystem." New York Times. N.p., 24 Jan. 2001. Web. 14 Jan. 2013.
http://uowblogs.com/ausccer/2012/10/28/seeing-forests-and-trees-in-sweden/

Head, Lesley. "Conversations with AUSCCER." Conversations with AUSCCER. Australian Centre for Cultural Environmental Research, 28 Oct. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2013.
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/

European Commission. "Sustainable Development." - Environment. European Commission, 23 Feb. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2013.
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/causes-and-effects-of-deforestation.html

Putatunda, Rita. "Causes and Effects of Deforestation." Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 13 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Jan. 2013.

C Michael Hogan (Lead Author);Joseph P. Dudley (Topic Editor) "Deforestation". In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth June 1, 2010; Last revised Date November 10, 2011; Retrieved January 15, 2013 <http://www.eoearth.org/article/Deforestation?topic=58071>

Egede, Tamara. "Marine Pollution." Marine Pollution. UKELA, 2004. Web. 16 Jan. 2013.

Foulkes, Imogen, Matthew Davis, Thomas Buch-Andersen, Tristana Moore, Richard Galpin, Jeremy Bowen, and Hamadou Tidiane Sy. "Recycling around the World." BBC News. BBC, 25 June 2005. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.

Medina, Sylvia, and Antoni Plasència. "Introducing APHEIS." APHEIS, n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. "British Soil Is Battlefield Over Peat, for Bogs' Sake." The New York Times. The New York Times, 07 Oct. 2012. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.

"Spotlight: Pollution in Eastern Europe: Year In Review 1995 (pollution)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2013.

Enviropedia. "Acid Rain in Europe." Acid Rain in Europe. Enviropedia, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2013.

Clean Air KIds. "Kids 4 Clean Air | Pollution | Climate | Recycling." Kids 4 Clean Air | Pollution | Climate | Recycling. Clean Air Kids, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2013.

Education Scotland. "The Kyoto Protocol." - The Response. Smarter Scotland, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2013.

"Biodiversity." â European Environment Agency (EEA). N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

"Breitbart.com." Breitbart News Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

"Consequences of Greenhouse-effect Temperature Rises." British Geological Survey (BGS). N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

"Europe Facing Environmental Disaster Through Global Warming." TOP STORIES. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

"Global Warming: Will Pasta Cease to Exist Due to Lower Grain Yield?" The Economic Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

"Heat Extremes Laid to Global Warming." Top News, Latest Headlines, World News & U.S News. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

Helm, Dieter. "OP-ED CONTRIBUTOR; To Slow Warming, Tax Carbon." The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Nov. 2012. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

Jowit, Juliette. "Threat to European Biodiversity 'as Serious as Climate Change'" The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 24 Apr. 2009. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

"SPIEGEL ONLINE." Druckversion. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. Kyoto Agreement WHAT GASES CAUSE ACID RAIN?

When we burn fuels in factories, the chemicals sulfur and nitrogen are released into the atmosphere.

When these chemicals mix with the water in clouds, the create sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides The Effects of Acid Rain Plants:
Acid rain takes away important minerals from plants.
Plants affected by acid rain lose their leaves and become weak.
Lakes and Water Life:
Acid rain pollutes rivers, streams, and lakes. Wildlife in these water habitats cannot survive in such an acidic habitat, so they end up dying. Buildings:
Acid rain ruins buildings when the acid eats into the metal and stone. It can also damage stained glass. Our Health:
Breathing in pollution from factories and acid rain can cause breathing problems, and later cancer. Acid Rain in Europe Acid rain is a big problem in European countries due to the large degree of industrialization.

Since acid rain originates in the air, it is easily spread to many countries by wind.

Acid rain in Sweden, Scandinavia, Norway, and Denmark is caused by the factories in Britain.
In fact, most of the acid rain problems in European countries are caused by completely different European countries. The Kyoto Agreement, a.k.a. the Kyoto Protocol, is an agreement meant to tackle climate change. The goal is to reduce the amount of emissions that cause the greenhouse effect and global warming. The Kyoto Agreement deals with the following 6 greenhouse gases: 1. carbon dioxide
2. methane
3. nitrous oxide
4. hydrofluorocarbons
5. perflourocarbons
6. sulphur hexaflouride The EU's goal was to reduce their emissions by 8% Signers of the Kyoto Protocol the cutting down and clearing away of trees and forests Causes -expanding agricultural land
-livestock grazing
-commercial logging
-slash-and-burn
-natural events initially to make ecosystems more favorable to game animals Neolithic Period- used for agricultural purposes also, deforestation sharply accelerated in the industrial times Effects changes in ecological, hydrological, and climatic processes ecological -habitat loss
-fragmentation of old-growth forests
-no replacements of rare species
-biodiversity, the variety of organisms within an environment hydrological -loss of infiltration capacity
- surface runoff at expense of groundwater recharge
-water pollution
-sedimentation
-soil loss Climate Deforestation relates to the carbon sink reductions which can lead up to buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide. European Commission are responding to the challenge of the climate change. The estimate by 2030 that there will be a reducing gross of tropical forests by atleast 50% They proposed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to provide benefits by 2020. Policies Efforts to Stop the Loss of Forests The developed a Global Forest Carbon Mechanism Reinforced in the following:
-rules of trade
-energy
-agriculture
-food security the funding is dependent on the actions of the developing nations, although the adequate amount is needed for the next couple of years to fight deforestation the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, preventing heat from escaping into space and causing the rise of temperatures and shifting weather patterns Solutions to Global Warming in Europe 1. binding national commitments to reduce emissions

2. the multi-national cap-and-trade program known as the European Union's Emission Trading Scheme

3. strong supports for its renewable energy and energy efficiency industries Because of global warming, Europe is facing the worst climate change in five millennia.

If things continue at current rates, by 2050, all of Switzerland's glaciers will have melted. Effects of Temperature Rise for Europe Greater risk of inland floods and more frequent flooding which lead to erosion Exposure to heatwaves and wildfires may increase health problems for the people living in Europe Mountainous areas will face glacier retreat. This reduces snow cover and winter tourism. Many species may also be lost. Because of global warming, higher temperatures and drought are predicted for southern Europe. This will cause water shortages, a drop in use of hydropower energy, a drop in summer tourism, and crop productivity. Water pollution: oil spills, sewage leaks, chemicals from farming, dumping trash
Air pollution: burning fuel, ground ozone, carbon monoxide What are the results of pollution? Water pollution: disruption of habitats, death of organisms, driving species to extinction, poisonous water
Air pollution: increased occurrence of asthma, bronchitous, and other respiratory diseases, acid rain Pollution in Eastern Europe In 1995, Europeans had to clean up eastern Europe because of the high rates of pollution. The pollution was a risk to Europeans' health, and the crops grew too poisonous for digestion. Poland Poland's pollution level was 50 times the legal limit. There was no wastewater treatment in half of the country

In 1995, they tried to lower pollution levels to the legal levels. East Germany Acid rain is destroying Germany's forests.
Because of acid rain, a large percent of rivers no longer support life. Positives: Kyoto Protocol
Recycling
Renewable energy efforts
United Nations Framework Convention Although 60% of household waste can be reused or composed, only 17.7% of household waste is being reused in England. The laws on recycling depend on where you live Germany:
Everyone separates their household waste into the following 5 groups: packaging, paper/cardboard, glass, "bio", and rubbish Switzerland:
It costs money for landfills and recycling is free. Italy:
Recycling laws vary from district to district. In Rome, you can get fined for not sorting you trash. Renewable Energy Efforts Wind energy Solar energy Tidal power Hydroelectricity Wind:
46 % came from Europe, size of windmills have changed from 10 meters (0.022 MW) to 100 meters (6 MW) Solar:
Germany is leading in solar energy with Italy close behind it. Tidal:
makes energy twice a day, Rance estuary in northern France is the largest power station in world. Hydroelectric:
creates 179,000 MW mainly in France, Italy, Norway, and Spain Renewable Energy Sources Uses of Wood - burn for fuel
- building material for ships and houses Hangman Questions
1.What protocol has to do with the following six gases:
•Carbon Dioxide
•Methane
•Nitrous Oxide
•Hydro fluorocarbons
•Per fluorocarbons
•Sulfur Hexafluoride THE END
That's all folks. 2.What is the name of the convention that was to fight deforestation by fixing climate change?
3.When Sulfur, Nitrogen, and other chemicals mix with water in clouds, which two gases do they create? 4.They say by 2050, if global warming rates keep up, this country’s glaciers will be melted.
5.Which medical condition can you get from exposure to air pollution?
6.What is the water system with the largest tidal power station located in France?
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