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Transcript of Plate Tectonics
The mantle is one of Earths four main layers and is made up of hot, dense, semisolid rock. The Mantle is around 2,900 km thick.
Deep beneath the earth, deeper than any human being or our technology has ever reached, lie plates, these plates can cook up some nasty surprises, but, have also made a HUGE difference in the shape of the earth and where the continents lie today.
What are Fault Lines?
By Alyssa Foenander
What are Plate Tectonics?
Inside the Earth- The Mantle
In the mantle, heat ranges from 500 to 900 °C at the boundary with the crust; to over 4,000 °C at the boundary with the outer core.
Inside the Earth-The Outer Core
Earths top layer consists of about 16km of rock and loose substances scientists call the crust. Underneath the continents, the crust is almost three times as thick as it is under the oceans. Also, the continental crust is almost always older than the oceanic crust.
The Earth's outer core is a liquid layer about 2,300 km thick made out of iron and metal that lies above Earth's inner core and below the mantle. It's between 4,000 and 5,000 degrees centigrade.
Inside the Earth-The Inner Core
The inner core is made mostly of iron. It is about 1,200 km thick. Even though the iron is immensely hot—between 5,000 and 7,000 degrees Centigrade —the pressure from the rest of the planet is so intense that the iron cannot melt. The Inner Core is said to be approximately the same temperature as the surface of the Sun: roughly 5400 °C
Layers of the Earth
This is a famous fault line in California called the San Andreas Fault
A Fault Line is where 2 plates collide, separate or rub together. On fault lines, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes may occur. Unlike the plates themselves, Fault Lines are visible on the earth. Fault Lines are on the area of the plate borders.
Convergent boundaries are usually where two plates collide causing the heavier plate to sink a little into the mantle and slide underneath the smaller plate causing trenches and volcanoes. The bigger plate that had sliden underneath the smaller plate melts, and the gasses released force the melted crust to the surface creating volcanic eruptions
-Get The Drift,
-The Change Driver,
-The Shaking Earth,
-Angry Giants-Red Hot Rage,
-The Journey of Earth,
A Transvergent boundary is where two plates slide against each other in a sideways motion. As these two plates slide past one another, neither plate is added to or destroyed. The result of two massive plates rubbing againt eachother can be large or minor earthquakes.
The World Inside Out!
Divergent boundaries are when two plates seperate and magma from the manlte rises and cools forming new crust. Most Divergent boundaries occur under the ocean. The theory of Plates was confirmed by a Mid-Atlantic Rigde in Iceland caused by a Divergent boundary.
More than 80% of Earths surface is made of volcanic rock (solified magma/lava) from the mantle. Volcanoes occur near most Convergent Boundaries and have a enormous reputation for destroying much of man-made and natural landscapes. Volcanoes are created when 2 plates collide causing the Crust to buckle and magma to rise. This happens again and again over thousands of years when eventually the pile of solified lava builds up forming a mountain or volcano. Volcanoes are always seen as a cone because of the ways the magma/lava rises and falls. The Ring Of Fire is an arc running through the Pacific Oceans along a plate boundary, about 75% of Earths active volcanoes run along this arc.
Earthquakes take place at Transvergent Boundaries where the 2 plates slide past each other. Edges of plates aren't smooth, and sometimes the edges lock together. But the convection currents are still pushing the 2 plates separate ways, so when the 2 plates suddenly lose grip and slide past one another, a huge build up of energy is released which causes the Earth to shake. A Tsunami is basically an Earthquake underwater which create huge waves.
Mountains develop at Convergent Boundaries, as the heavier and denser plate goes under the lighter plate forcing the upper plate to rise a little creating mountains.
The Himilayas is a famous mountain range and contains the highest mountain in the world. This range exists along the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate.