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Anatomy & Weight Training Theory

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Melinda Pearson

on 29 September 2014

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Transcript of Anatomy & Weight Training Theory

Year 9 HPE
Term 4

Always use correct technique –
cheat in order to lift more
Do not select exercises that involve overhead lifts or squats in areas where others are exercising in a supine position (lying down)
Continue breathing – exhale on effort phase

During machine exercises:

Assume stable starting position
Perform exercises with good technique (keep head and back stable)
Perform exercises in a slow & controlled manner
Use a full ROM (range of motion)
Breathing should be continuous – exhale during the effort phase of the lift

Weight training can be used to develop:

Muscular strength
Muscular hypertrophy (increased size)
Muscular power
Muscular endurance

….by manipulating the number of reps, sets, speed of movement and rest between sets

Tell your spotter your goals – no. of reps…etc
Indicate if you need assistance (don’t try to be tough!!!)
Select appropriate loads and repetitions.
Always have proper equipment: Shoes, towel, clothing

YOUR responsibility as a lifter

During free weight exercises:

Be careful of bars that extend out
Keep traffic clear of platforms and overhead lifts
Be aware of backing into others
Use a spotter on exercises that may pin you down (e.g. squat; bench press)
Use a full ROM (range of motion)
Perform exercises in a slow & controlled manner

Train large muscle groups first
3 days a week recommended. Rest days are required for muscles to rest and rebuild.
Adhere to training principles – e.g. progressive overload
Ensure you are ready to start weight training - emotional, social & physical maturity

Whole body Vs split routines
Multi-joint exercises vs Isolated exercises
: low - medium.
Training Repetition range 8-20RM.
should not
perform 1 RM.
low - medium.
3 x sets per exercise.
6-9 exercises.

Limiting Risks

Before undertaking a weight training program, the following must be considered:

social, cognitive, emotional maturity
immature skeletal, muscular, nervous, hormonal systems
lack of co-ordination between systems
uneven growth patterns

Not considering these factors could lead to injury

What are the risks?

Select one of the following weight lifting myths
Research evidence that ‘debunks’ (disproves) the myth:

Weight lifting causes high blood pressure
Weight lifting decreases flexibility
Muscle turns to fat if you stop weight lifting


: Weight lifting is bad for your joints.

: Strength training will stunt the growth of children.

Enhances growth and development
Increases bone density
Increases co-ordination and skill
Improves strength, power and muscular endurance

There are several different types of synovial joints in the body which facilitate a range of movements


Synovial Joints

There are 3 types of muscle cells in our body:

Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle
Skeletal muscle

The Muscular System

The body consists of 204 bones

124 are involved in the
production of movement

Bones of the body

Use a closed grip
Assume all of the weight as a last resort
Suggest technique alterations if necessary
Be aware of dangerous situations that could occur with various exercises
Use two spotters for eccentric work
Use at least one spotter for all normal lifts
Dumbbells – stand behind and assist under your partner’s elbows.

Ensure area is safe and free from other equipment
Place your body in good lifting position – e.g. knees flexed and back flat
Know your partners goals – number of reps, sets etc
Check the bar for evenly loaded ends
Be alert and quick to respond – don’t allow yourself to be distracted
Guide the bar if necessary

Before using free weights:

Check collars
Use locks, tighten securely
Load both ends of the bar evenly
Avoid overloading the bar
Bend your knees & use your legs when lifting & carrying weights around the gym

Before using the machine:

Check for frayed cables
Check for smoothness on guide rods
Adjust seat if necessary
Insert keys all the way into weight stack
Keep hands away from pulleys & cables
Never place fingers between weight stacks

Universal Machines

Bone stress reaction – e.g. tibia, fibula, femur not being strong enough
Epiphyseal injuries – growth plate injury (highest incidence in 12-14 year olds).
Tendon insertion i.e. irritation of attachment site to bone
Growing pains – may be aggravated

Most common injuries

Types of bones

How many bones do you know?

Label as many as you can.

Weight Training

Like any sport, weight training carries with it the risk of injury. These can be considered Acute injuries or Chronic injuries

Injury Type

In your books, write down some benefits you think you will gain from being involved in weight training

Benefits of weight training

A form of resistance training performed with free weights, weight machines, resistance bands, or a person's own weight

Weight Training

Axial skeleton

Bones designed for the protection of vital organs (e.g. vertebrae; ribs)
Appendicular skeleton

Bones of the body associated with movement
Long bones
– include humerus; tibia; radius; phalanges
Short bones
– carpals & tarsals

Flat bones
– include the skull, ribs, pelvis & shoulder blades. Protect internal organs or provide a site of attachment for larger muscles
Irregular bones
– vertebrae, pelvic bones, facial bones
Skeletal muscles attach on one bone (origin) and join to another bone (insertion)

Muscle contracts & shortens, bringing the origin & insertion closer together → produces movement of bones
Skeletal Muscles
Joints of the body
There are 3 types of joints in the body:

Fixed Joints
Semi-moveable joints
Synovial joints
A number of repetitions performed consecutively without rest
Repetition maximum (RM)
The maximum weight you can lift a certain number of times e.g. 1RM; 3RM
Repetition (rep)
The number of times an exercise is performed
e.g. 10 repetitions
Safety in the gym
Free Weights
After using free weights, ensure you unload bars and store equipment in its proper location.

Spotting Safety
As a spotter
Weight Training
Injury prevention - increased strength of muscles, tendons and ligaments helps protect joints.
Improves body image
Self confidence
Develop life long healthy habits
Injuries in the Gym
Facts & Fallacies
: In a controlled environment, weight training does not affect overall growth
: Children cannot increase strength because they do not have enough testosterone.
: Testosterone is not essential for achieving weight gains (e.g. women & the elderly) can also add muscle mass with weight training
: Lifting weights won’t help you lose weight.

: Weight lifting increases muscle mass, which increases metabolism so you burn more fat.
: It is less stressful on joints than running & actually strengthens the muscles & ligaments around a joint
Acute Injuries
Injury occurring suddenly
occur most often when overhead lifts are involved
improper technique
load too excessive
Chronic Injuries
Injury that develops over time
improper technique
too little variety
training too intense
training too often
Enjoyment & variety Vs boredom & overuse
Emphasise technique Vs competition or high load
Work in pairs – spotter required
Ensure a sufficient warm up and warm down to prevent lactic acid pooling (i.e. stiff muscles)
Continue flexibility work. Use full range of movement (ROM) in training.
This terminology describes the actions of muscles.

Each of these terms assumes that the body starts in the anatomical position.
Anatomical Movement
refers to a movement that decreases the angle between two body parts.

refers to a movement that increases the angle between two body parts.
Flexion and Extension
Abduction & Adduction
is a movement away from the midline of the body

is a movement towards the midline of the body
Medial rotation is a rotating movement towards the midline.

Lateral rotation is a rotating movement away from the midline.
Medial & Lateral Rotation
Pronation moves the palm of the hand so that it is facing posteriorly (towards the rear - e.g. typing on a keyboard)

Supination moves the palm of the hand so that it is facing anteriorly (towards the front - e.g. like an open book)
Pronation & Supination
Dorsiflexion & Plantarflexion
Dorsiflexion refers to extension at the ankle (bringing your foot towards your shin)

Plantarflexion refers to flexion at the ankle (pointing your foot towards the floor)
Designing a Program
Sets & Reps - The Basics

10-15 reps, med-slow pace, volume is key
General Strength
8-10 reps, medium pace, volume & wgt key
Max Strength
3-6 reps, med-fast pace, weight is key, low volume, high intensity
3-6 reps, explosive, speed is key, low volume, high intensity
Designing a program
When designing a program for 14-16 year olds, the following should be considered:
Full Body workout
3 days per week (rest in between each)
stick to "core" exercises
General strength 3-4 sets of 8-12 reps
Keep programs to 8 exercises max
superset exercises that work different muscle groups to maximise time
Core "Pushing" Exercises
Bench press or incline bench press & dumbells (DBs)
Shoulder press - Bar & DBs
Medicine Ball throws (e.g. chest pass) - focus on technique
Core "Pulling" Exercises
Seated row or bench row
Front Lat pulldowns
Close grip lat pulldowns
Chin ups
Horizontal Pull ups
Core "Leg" Exercises
Squat, split squat
lunges (and walking lunges)
Single leg squat
step ups
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