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Secruity: Critical Theory
Transcript of Secruity: Critical Theory
Hyperreality created;the blurring of reality and the simulation of it ("simulacrum" - how it is created)
"The Gulf War Did Not Take Place" - simulated war games and competing realities described through media
A war of spectacle vs. spectacle of war "It is no longer a question of the false representation of reality (ideology), but of concealing the fact that the real is no longer real" Epistemic Realism Social Realism Interpretive Realism Hyperrealism "And Covenants, without the Sword, are but Words, and of no strength to secure a man at all." Power refers to eminence
Conflict arises through the competition for power
People naturally seek power to preserve security
Most basic need is security
Sovereignty is necessary component of security
Takes as given: state of nature, global anarchy, state sovereignty "Of course, the measure of the power that I gain for my object over yours needs your recognition in order to become real power" "War of all against all" exists; is the product of capitalism
Power is social - derives meaning from context
Struggle for power necessitates security
But is historically and class specific
Individuals are alienated from one another through labor forces
Gives rise to need for security
State viewed as subordinate to economic factors Capitalism Security of the State Labor relations Struggle for power Primal fear & desire for power Alienation Security of the state Struggle for power Global anarchy Need for security Inability to secure oneself alone Alienation Will to power
Negative: Hobbe's desire for power
Positive: Self-realization; "Force of becoming"
Desire for security driven by fear of the unknown/unfamiliar (negative will to power)
Fear is then suppressed through security
Negative for Nietzsche; Fear motivates change and affirmation, rather than resentment, of difference
Relates to Evans' concept of liberalism - creation of "other" essential component of securitizing Positive Negative Will to power Will to survive Collective identity Contingent Life Security and suppression of fear Calculation of risks and benefits Improvement, change, and affirmation of difference Fear stimulates "And has the world not lost some of its charm for us because we have grown less fearful? With the diminution of our fearfulness has our own dignity and solemnity, our own fearsomeness, not also diminished?" Resentment of difference Drive towards self-preservation Otherization Question What do you think Nietzsche would have made of the Patriot Act? Security: Critical Approaches Foucault's Legacy: Security, War and Violence in the 21st Century The Value of Security: Hobbes, Marx, Nietzsche, and Baudrillard James Der Derian Brad Evans Feminist Responses to International Security Studies J. Ann Tickner Security Analysis: Conceptual Apparatus Barry Buzan, Ole Waever, Jaap De Wilde Individual State Norms, Ideas, "Humanity" Levels of Analysis What is security? Security in our everyday language is not the same as security in IR Social securities Applied to civilian guard or police functions International securities Firmly rooted in the traditions of power politics The Different Sectors Military Sector Referent object: usually the state
Existential threat: the fact that more militaries are becoming a multifaceted force (i.e. defending the state, maintain world peace, humanitarian intervention) Political Sector Economic Sector Societal Sector Environmental Sector Referent object: many different levels- single person to supranational (EU)
Existential threat: usually targets sovereignty or ideology of the state Referent object: firms/national economies
Existential threat: national bankruptcy Referent object: collective identities that function separate from the state (nations/religions)
Existential threat: given the type of referent object it is difficult to establish boundaries that differentiate existential from lesser threats Referent object: large range from survival of species (specific), types of habitats (specific), or maintenance of planetary climate (general)
Existential threat: at both macro & micro level are clear threats (like the ability to survive) but because there are many intertwined problems it's hard to weed out the existential ones Discussion Questions Securitzation Security is what takes politics beyond the established rules and places it in a category of "special politics" or "above politics." This is known as securitization.
In principle, placement of issues is open (depending on circumstances). In practice, placement varies from state to state. Securitization "If we do not tackle this problem, everything else will be irrelevant (because we will not be here or will not be free to deal with it in our own way)" (24).
Securitizing move vs. securitized issues
It is important to note that securitization is not fulfilled by breaking rules or existential threats alone, but when cases of existential threats legitimize breaking the rules. Size and Significance A problem that securitization faces is the size and significance of a problem, meaning how can someone measure a problem on a scale and how do you determine why it's more important than another problem? The Speech and Its Actors The Importance of Securitization When an actor successfully securitizes an issue, there are consequences because the actor/state/nation's response to the issue will now be different than if it were not securitized. The Key Question For this article, the key question in security analysis comes down to who can "do" security in the name of what? Securitization is a speech act that holds distinct consequences in international politics.
"Actors" speak about security and try to move the topic away from politics and into an area of security which allows for the legitimization of extraordinary actions against the threat. "Of what value is security?" "Security crisis" in security studies through rapid change in post-Cold War world Goal is to create a "late modern security comfortable with a plurality of centers, multiple meanings, and fluid identities" (p. 26) No one "alternative security." What is security? "a condition of being protected, free from danger, safety." (p. 28) Conventionally understood: "a misplaced confidence in one's position" (p. 28) A pledge, bond, or surety in the face of a debt or obligation Or: All of this week's readings to some extent suggest that "security" is socially constructed. Are there elements of security that are objective and essential to the term? Do you find any of the articles to be particularly compelling (or weak)? If so, why? What do you feel is the greatest security threat facing the United States currently? What about you personally? What would each author say? Brad Evans
J. Ann Tickner
Barry Buzan, Ole Waever, Jaap De Wilde
James Der Derian Hobbes
Baudrillard Questions? By Pamela Cassell, Glenn Eisenberg, Nicole Klein, and Michael Strom Feminist Approach to Security Feminist approach is sociological Traditional IR Approach • Stems from realist perspective Differing Perspectives Anthony Giddens Faults the state rather than the individual for international wars Joshua Goldstein Asks why we have not been more curious about the fact that, while virtually all societies throughout history have engaged in war, overwhelmingly they have been fought by men. Consensus War is not a biological manifestation of male aggression Paradox of the Women’s position “If women become warriors it reinforces the war system”
EX: Margaret Thatcher, Golda Meir, and Indira Gandhi According to study performed attitudes of men and women relating to the Arab conflicts are similar Weak Arguments Brad Evans Senior lecturer in IR at the University of Bristol
Published extensively on the nature of liberal wars
Research explores global problems of security, power and political violence
His influences have come from the works of Foucault. What is security? Written in human terms “The target of human security, whether broad or narrow, is to make live the life of the individual through a complex of strategies initiated at the level of populations.” (DeLarringa & Doucet, qtd in Evans, p419) Security governance
(p 418) Dillon and Reid(2009) are quoted stating “Although positive law was, therefore, required to
supplement natural law, governance was required to supplement the law as such” (p418) Starting Point: Foucault (from History of Sexuality) Biopower Ancient Sovereign (Monarchy) had “the right to take life or let live” (p 137)
Modern Sovereign (Liberal democracy) has “a power to foster life or disallow it to the point of death” (p138)
These two forms are incongruous Biopolitics "Bio-politics forces a re-prioritization of those concerns ordinarily associated with human development/progress in a manner that complements traditional security paradigms.” (Evans, p415) Lecture Series From where most of Evans' ideas came
Debate amongst Foucauldian scholars of its relevance
Evans argues that it is relevant and should be developed further Expansion of Liberalism Very recent phenomenon
"It was not until the 1990s that a global imaginary of threat allowed for the possibility to govern all illiberal life on the basis that the species as a whole would be less endangered. This ability to collapse the local into the global has resulted in an unrivalled moment of liberal expansionism." (p418) Liberalism Freedom: from oppression, of expression, of the market, etc. Traditional Kantian Definition Foucauldian Definition Liberal ≠ Free
“If I employ the word ‘liberal, it is first of all because this governmental practice in the process of establishing itself is not satisfied with respecting this or that freedom, with guaranteeing this or that freedom. More profoundly, it is a consumer of freedom” (qtd in Evans, p417) Contrast of Liberalism Kant Liberalism Democracy Government with Rational Self-Interest Perpetual Peace This idea for why peace would occur is very similar, essentially, to Waltz’s neorealist views of peace. Foucault/Evans The pursuit of “Perpetual Peace” will lead to “Perpetual War” Liberalism Division "Necessary Violence" Global Liberal War Terrorism (backlash) Division Liberal institutional “development” leads to division "rather than a universalising bio-politics, development is the opposite. It is a means of dividing humankind against itself in the generic form of developed and underdeveloped species life" (Duffield, 2007: ix). (qtd in Evans, p420) Biopolitical aporia (irresolvable political dilemma) “Making life live – selecting out those ways of life that are fittest by design- inevitably writes into that very script those lives that are retarded, backward, degenerate, wasteful, and ultimately dangerous to the social order” (p425)
“Good” cannot exist without “Bad”
This social division is crucial to maintain the supremacy of liberal thought. Social Division = Racism Modern era: racism is cultural more than biological
“Racism is not what it used to be. Cultural fitness has now replaced biological heritage to contour the new lines of political struggle” (p427)
“liberals more generally have upheld the overriding concern that radically different ways of life are a principal source of society’s ills” (p427) Division Preferred race vs. Dangerous ‘Others’ “Duffield’s principal message here is clear and provocative: Liberalism proceeds on the basis that ‘Others’ are the problem to be solved.” (Evans, p 420)
Cultural subversion of “others” necessary for survival
“No longer banished from the realm, life is denied its political quality as the ‘bare essentials’ for species survival take precedence” (Evans, p 420)
Tolerance is not possible, only compliance of these dangerous “others” (transformation into the liberal cultural norm) Contemporary Examples Japanese Americans becoming accepted
Stephanie DiAlto (2005) "From 'Problem Minority' to 'Model Minority'"
People used to think that biological race and culture were inherently linked, but this is not so anymore Necessary Violence Definition Killing for the good of the species
It is believed that a certain amount of violence is necessary in order to subdue the evils of a dangerous other Author's Example: Nazism Auschwitz
Nazism is essentially unrestricted liberalism Forms of Violence It is unfortunate that only extreme acts of violence are reprimanded (Evans, p426)
Evans believes that violence always persists against dangerous “others”
Thus, while some acts (like Auschwitz) are overt, violence is still a given
Examples: Lawful segregation is replaced by de-facto segregation; Branding of groups as terrorist groups (securitization). Liberal War Thesis Formulated by Michael Dillon and Julian Reid (2009) "With ‘liberal peace’ therefore predicated on the pacification/elimination of all forms of political difference in order that liberalism might meet its own moral and political objectives, the more peace is commanded, the more war is declared in order to achieve it" How can this universal war end? 2 possible outcome
2.)Tranformation “of [all] other societies and cultures into liberal societies and cultures (Dillon and Reid, qtd in Evans, p422)
*Unlikely outcome Global Liberal War “Viewed from the perspective of power, global insurgency is after all nothing more than the advent of a global civil war fought for the biopolitical spoils of life.” (Evans, p423)
Terrorism is not an outlier, it is an indication of global liberalism Topics of Concern
Are liberalism, cultural division and genocide really “modern” occurrences?
“Racism thus appears here to be a thoroughly modern phenomenon” (Evans, p 425)
“A new moment has arrived, in which the destiny of humanity as a whole is being wagered on the success of humanity’s own political strategies.” (Evans, p423)
Could it not be said that racism has always been more cultural than biological?
Have genocides existed in the past?
Pre-modern "Racial Cleansing" - The Romans, Genghis Khan, etc Global Civil War = Terrorism "What should we make of the fact that propagation of military violence has always been a resolutely male affair" "War is not a manifestation of male aggression, rather, it is associated with the rise of the state." Believes that gender is most important thing to view when reviewing the history of war "The socialization practices of boys and girls motivates men's participation in combat and women exclusion from it." If women engage in security debates as peacemakers "it reinforces both militarized masculinity and women's marginality" J. Ann Tickner Research primarily focuses on
Feminist Approaches to IR
Peace and Security Feminist International Relations Theorist Works discuss the differences between feminist approach and traditional IR approach If women remain not engaged the current system, the system will continue as such. ***It is unclear if Tickner believes that the only real change can therefore come through men Study found that attitudes of men and women relating to Arab/Israeli conflict similar "High-Tech weapons that kill from great distances increase the impersonality of warfare and decrease the sense for personal responsibility among soilders-this is one way the military deals with the problem that most men do not like to kill." This is counter to the idea that gendered males are responsible for militarized masculinity Judith Stiehm - "Since men have been given a near monopoly on the application of state violence, and most women have been exempt form first-hand experience of war, women tend to exhibit a civilian mind, a certain ostrich-like obliviousness when its comes to matters of security and war." Quotes and Question J. Ann Tickner- "I have sometimes found that in my women studies departments, audiences tend to be small when military or national security issues are on the agenda." As showcased in our classroom, why do you think that many of the women are reluctant to participate in matters pertaining to security and war and do you think this coincides with Tickner's views. Overview Division Division Division Necessary Violence Necessary Violence
“Liberalism thus stands accused here of universalizing war in its pursuit of peace” (Evans, p 421) Aim of the article
To encourage IR study that follows the tradition of Foucault and discourage the traditional focus of state sovereignty • Builds on ontology of inter-
state relations • Have generally viewed security
issues from a top-down approach Seeks to better understand women’s subordination in order to prescribe strategies for ending it Feminists have generally taken a bottom-up approach It comes out of an ontology of social relations, particularly gender relations Starts at the level of the individual embedded in hierarchical, social, political, and economic structures Hamas not being recognized despite being democratically voted into power
Becoming an accepted people requires more than "political rights and democratic freedom." (Evans, p428)
More CULTURAL change is necessary, not just political change.