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Transcript of Yellow Fever
the liver and kidneys, causing fever and jaundice and in some cases can be fatal. Yellow fever is transmitted through the bite of a mosquito and can be carried by monkeys. This disease is common in South America and in sub-Saharan Africa Anyone can get yellow fever, but the elderly have a higher risk of severe infection. If a person is bitten by an infected mosquito, symptoms usually develop 3 - 6 days later. Yellow fever has 3 stages: Stage 1: Early Stage: Headache, muscle and joint aches, fever, loss of appetite, vomiting, jaundice. After 3-4 days the symptoms should start to go away (remission) Stage 2: Period of remission:After 3 - 4 days, fever and other symptoms go away. Most people will recover at this stage, but others may move onto the third, most dangerous stage (intoxication stage) within 24 hours. Third Stage: Period of intoxication: Multi-organ dysfunction occurs. This may include heart, liver, and kidney failure, bleeding disorders, hemorrhage, and brain dysfunction including delirium, seizures, coma, shock, and death. Heart dysfunction
Bleeding (may progress to hemorrhage)
Muscle aches (myalgia)
Red eyes, face, tongue
Vomiting blood Symptoms Treatment No real treatment for yellow fever
Symptoms can be treated
Blood products for severe bleeding
Dialysis for kidney failure
Fluids through a vein (intravenous fluids) If you will be traveling to an area where yellow fever is common:
Sleep in screened housing
Use mosquito repellents
Wear clothing that fully covers your body Prevention Diversity of Living Things The primary vector of yellow fever is the mosquito The mosquito carries the virus from one host to another, primarily between monkeys, from monkeys to humans, and from person to person. Several different species if the Aedes and Haemogogus mosquitoes transmit the virus and they can breed in 3 different habitats: Around houses (Domestic)
In the jungle (Wild)
In both habitats (Semi-Domestic) There are three types of transmission cycles: Sylvatic (Jungle) Yellow Fever: In tropical rainforests, yellow fever occurs in monkeys that are infected by wild mosquitoes
Infected monkeys pass the virus to other mosquitoes that feed on them
Then, the infected mosquitoes bite humans entering the forest, which results in occasional cases of yellow fever
Majority of infections occure in young men working in the forests (eg. logging) Intermediate Yellow Fever: Occurs in humid or semi-humid parts of Africa, small-scale epidemics occur
Semi-domestic mosquitoes infect both monkeys and humans
Increased contact between people and infected mosquitoes leads to transmission
This is the most common type of outbreak in Africa
An outbreak can become a more severe epidemic if the infection is carried into an area populated with both domestic mosquitoes and unvaccinated people Urban Yellow Fever: Large epidemics occur when infected people introduce the virus into densely populated areas with a high number of non-immune people and Aedes mosquitoes.
Infected mosquitoes transmit the virus from person to person Internal Systems and Regulations The Yellow Fever virus will target the cells of the digestive system such as the stomach and intestines The Yellow Fever virus will mainly target the digestive system Anaemia develops
Bleeding from the mouth, nose and stomach
Blood may be found in vomit and faeces The following problems may occur from Yellow Fever: The kidneys are also affected by the Yellow Fever virus The respiratory system can be affected in some cases such as the lungs and nasal cavity. The immune system is affected as well such as the lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow as well as cells in the liver, kidneys and digestive tract Evolution Yellow Fever is believed to have originated in Africa
The first recorded outbreak of the disease was in 1648 in Yucatan, where the illness was termed xekik (black vomit)
Carlos Finlay, a doctor from Cuba proposed in 1881 that Yellow Fever comes from mosquitoes rather than human contact.
Yellow fever was thus the first shown virus to be transmitted by mosquitoes. In 1927 Yellow Fever was isolated in Africa
Led to the development of two new vaccines