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Catie DeWitt

on 12 April 2015

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Transcript of Electricity

Natasha Sood
Catie DeWitt
Electricity is the source for light, heat, power, machinery, etc.
With no access electricity:
Limited access to
Modern technology

The Importance of the
Light Bulb
1.6 billion people live without access to electricity
80% live in rural areas
South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa
Predicted: rapid urban migration and population growth
Task at hand:
How much energy is needed to live in decent conditions?
How will we provide that energy to 7 billion people?

Living in the Dark...
Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD)
Greenhouse gas emission:
Growth: record 2.1% increase in 2012
58% higher than in 1990
China & India account for 1/3 of worldwide carbon spew
Significant stress on environment

By the numbers...
Compounding problem
Developing countries grow richer => use of power hogging devices increases => energy consumption per person increases

Tackling problem of electricity (i.e. energy) consumption
1. Involves massive research & costly investment
2. Reflects country’s economic and social development

The Problem
All electricity is a result of energy
Not all energy results in generated electricity

Large suppliers of energy for electricity:
Natural gas

Electricity vs. Energy
The Externalities
Fossil Fuels
Can we reshape consumption, encouraging use of RES and reducing environmental impact while maintaining and distributing a high standard of living throughout the world?

1. Encouraging greater use of RES

2. Ensuring access to electricity around the world, despite population increase

Issues Surrounding
Green Electricity
are we
going to do?
Goal 7
Ensure environmental sustainability by 2050

Target policies and programs
$RES >
$Fossil Fuels
US to increase nuclear trade with India

In the United States
US electricity sector
1/3 of US greenhouse gas emissions
38% of total carbon dioxide emissions
Obama's Clean Power Plan
EPA to reduce 30% of carbon pollution from US power sector
Obama's Administration
Tripled electricity production from wind power
To buy at least 20% of electricity from RES by 2020
UN to forge global climate change in Paris in December
Pledges made by Presidents Obama & Xi Jinping
US: Cut emissions by 26-28% by 2025
China: By 2030
Obama's New Global Deal
Domestic initiatives
Freezing construction of new coal-fired power plants
Increase fuel economy of vehicles
Plug methane leaks from oil & gas production
The Blueprint for the US
The US to lead by example
Backlash by Republicans
World's largest energy consumer and power generator
Fossil fuels (esp. coal) are leading source of electricity generation
2012: spent $68 billion on RES projects
2013: World leader in RES use
2014: 49,000 MW of solar, wind and hydroelectric power
Moving Forward
RES use in the U.S. and China
Relationship between RES use and population increase
Data Source: United States, EIA
Data Source: REN21
Data Source: United States, EIA
US Net Electricity Capacity by Energy Source (2013)
China Net Electricity Capacity by Energy Source (2012)
Data Source: EIA
Data Source: EIA
Data Source: United States, EIA
Data Source: REN21
The Great
Population driving increasing electricity consumption
RES is more expensive than fossil fuels
Investing in energy-hogging appliances
Affordable electricity access to rural areas
Prompting U.S. & Chinese governments to invest in RES
Currently: 22.1% of global electrical energy production is RES based
The Drivers
Lack of infrastructure, delays in grid connection
Variable renewables challenge grid system operators
The Challenges of RES
A Higher Standard of Living
Most rapidly increasing in rural areas of Non-OECD countries
83% of Developing Asia was electrified
Goal: 100% eletrified by end of 2015
Using electrification to address energy poverty
Increase in economic and social development
Better access to education, medical, transportation systems
The Implications
2000-2012 spent $3 trillion on energy sector
Security of supply
Environmental stability
3 Priorities of Future Energy Policy
International Energy Agency
After 2040 will need $7.6 trillion
Future of modern humanity rests on governmental shoulders
Large scale policy changes
Mandate higher standards of energy efficiency
One person can make a difference
Consumers can shift the market
U.S. and China: UN conference in Paris in 2015
U.S. House passed The American Clean Energy and Security Act
83% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050, base year 2005
U.S. Senate won't pass it; legislation stalled
Solar Roadways
Replace asphalt surfaces with Solar Road panels
Withstand weight
Above freezing
No snow, ice or salt!
1. Large scale technology advancement
Projected growth in world energy demand cut in half by 2020
3. Consumers shape the market!
Space for new technology
Nuclear power plants
Yet, U.S. is helping build them in India

Turning off lights in buildings at night
Higher mileage cars
More efficient household appliances and lighting
2. Cut waste
Current Discussions
Taking Action
Build nuclear power plants
India to rely less on coal
Estimated Renewable Energy Share of Global Electricity Production, End-2013
Share of Population with Electricity Access, and Rate of Electrification versus Population Growth
Full transcript