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Vagisha Shrivastava

on 11 October 2013

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The Gandhian Era
Turning Point
Gandhiji went To South Africa for a legal case.
On his way fro Durban to Pretoria, he was thrown out of the first-class compartment on account of Racial Discrimination.
The events that made History!
Non Cooperation movement
Gandhiji, after becoming the president of the INC transformed it into a non-violent revolutionary movement.

Main Features:

1) Surrendering of titles and resignation from nominated posts.

2) Boycott of govt. schools/colleges.

3) Boycott of foreign goods and adoption of swadeshi.

4) Boycott of election

5) Effect of Non-cooperation:

1) Earlier the national movement was a concern of only the middle class, but now even the poor masses were active participants.

2) Unity amongst all religions and castes.

3)The Indian Textile industry was greatly benefited and Import reduced.

4) It instilled confidence among the Indians.

Gandhiji went To South Africa for a legal case.
On his way fro Durban to Pretoria, he was thrown out of the first-class compartment on account of Racial Discrimination.

Who is a Satyagrahi?
A Satyagrahi would not accept anything wrong. However, he would remain peaceful at all times.

According to Gandhiji, such an attitude creates a feeling of guilt in the person who does wrong.
Gandhiji's Methods
"Swa"- Own "Deshi"- Country

Gandhiji wanted Indians to be self-sufficient.
The "Charkha" symbolized the ability to manufacture your own cloth. This would reduce poverty in India and also reduce British Profit.
He stressed on replacing foreign-made goods with Indian

Value-Based Politics
He used courage, patience and suffering as vehicles to achieve higher goals. "If someone slaps you on one cheek..offer him the other"

He resorted to fast and penance during communal riots in Kolkatta.

He was against the radical's way of 'physical violence.
Mass Movement
Gandhiji lived for the poor and the opressed.

He involved the masses women, workers, farmers in the national Movement.

He worked for the abolition of Sati.

He set up village Industries association.

The Rowlatt Act
After the Champaran incident. Britishers felt that there was a lot of political unrest in the country.

Gandhiji and Sardar Patel led many strikes and Satyagrahs in parts of Gujarat and Khera districts. These were successful movemnts which forced the Britishers to give into Indian Demands.

Therefore the "Rowlatt Act" was passed in 1919.

Under this act the Britishers could arrest anyone without any trial, only a slight doubt was good enough reason to arrest people

Champaran Movement

The Britishers not only forced to grow Indigo on the land,but also falsely trapped the poor farmers in giving away their land.

This led to a the land going barren and poverty in Champaran.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacare!
In continuation with the Satyagrah movement. Gandhiji announced an all-India Strike.

On 30th March (Baisakhi Day) A peaceful strike was organized in Amritsar in protest of Rowlatt Act.

General Dyer opened fire at innocent people and killed them mercilessly.

Not only did the British Govt. forgave the General, he was even honoured with a sword and 2 thousand Pounds when he returned to England.
Khilafat Movement
The Britishers demolished the offfice ofthe Khalifa,who was regarded as the head of the muslims allover the wold after defeat of the turks inthe 1st world war.

Gandhiji saw this as a great opportunity to establish Hindu-Muslim Unity.

He extended full support of the congress to the khilafat movement.

Chauri Chaura Incident
The violent burning burning of the police station at Gorakhpur, forced Gandhiji to withdraw the non-cooperation movement,

This lead to a seperate formation of the"Swaraj" Party under the leadership of Chitarranjan Das.
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