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Baroque Musical Era

AP Music Theory 2011
by

Erica Kennedy

on 1 June 2011

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Transcript of Baroque Musical Era

Baroque Era It became popular because of the Roman Catholic church, which had decided at the time that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. Late 16th century Early 18th century Periods of European art music
Early
Medieval (500–1400)
Renaissance (1400–1600)
Baroque (1600–1760)
Common practice
Baroque (1600–1760)
Classical (1750–1830)
Romantic (1815–1910)
Modern and contemporary
20th-century (1900–2000)
Contemporary (1975–present)
21st-century (2000–present) The word baroque comes from the word barocco meaning "misshapen pearl" (because the music is so heavily ornamented) in Portuguese or bizarre in Italian. Baroque music describes a style of Western Classical music. Keyboard instruments:
organ
harpischord
clavichord String instruments:
violin
contrabass or double bass Woodwind instruments:
bassoon
flute
oboe Instruments: Percussion:
Timpani The Lute- harpischord

It's a truly wonderful instrument with a deep, rich and resonant sound.
No wonder Bach had one custom-built to his own specifications. Brass
Trumpet Timeline
Period of Baroque music: circa 1600 to circa 1750
Musicians

William Byrd c. 1543-1623
Claudio Monteverdi 1567-1643
Jean-Baptiste Lully 1632-1687
Arcangelo Corelli 1653-1713
Henry Purcell 1659-1695
Fran¡ois Couperin 1668-1733
Antonio Vivaldi c. 1675-1741
Jean-Phillippe Rameau 1683-1764
Johann Sebastian Bach 1685-1750
Domenico Scarlatti 1685-1757
George Frideric Handel 1685-1759
Joseph Haydn 1732-1809
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791 Johann Sebastian Bach He was born on March 21, 1685 in Eisenach, Germany; his parents were Johann Ambrosius and Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt. Bach is the youngest of eight children. He died on July 28, 1750 in Leipzig due to a stroke. He was a keyboard virtuoso, master of the fugue, a Konzertmeister (concert master), Kappelmeister (chapel master) and Kantor at the Thomasschule. He wrote among others, passions, almost 200 cantatas, concertos and orchestral suites. He was taught by his father how to play the violin and harpsichord. During his brother's (Johann Christoph) wedding when he was just 9 years old, Bach met Johann Pachelbel. Later on, when his father died, Johann Christoph adopted him and taught Bach how to play the organ. Bach's friend, Georg Böhm, introduced him to Hamburg's organ traditions. When Bach was a boy, he had a beautiful soprano voice and sang in the Michaelis monastery choir at Lüneburg and later on, with the Mattins Choir (Mettenchor). Bach had 20 children and was married twice. George Frideric Handel He was born on February 23, 1685 in Halle, Germany; his parents were Georg Handel and Dorothea Taust. He died April 14, 1759 in London. Considered the creator of the English oratorio, one of the great composers of concerto grosso, one of the most important composers of the late Baroque period and master of polyphony. He also worked as music director for the duke of Chandos beginning in 1718. In 1726, he became composer of the Chapel Royal. He composed about 40 operas, 20 oratorios, songs and other vocal works. He also wrote orchestral music, chamber music and church music. It has been mentioned that Handel's father didn't want him to become a musician at first; his father wanted him to become a lawyer instead. He studied law at Halle University. However, the young Handel managed to secretly play the clavichord in their attic. Later on, his father would allow him to study music under Friedrich Zachow. In 1702, he became organist at the Halle Cathedral. In 1703, he moved to Hamburg where he served as violinist and then as harpsichordist, Undoubtedly, his most famous work is the oratorio "Messiah," he also wrote other well-received works like "Samson," his operas "Almira," "Rinaldo," "Il pastor fido," "Teseo" and his English songs "Come and Listen (The Sailor’s Complaint)," "Love’s But the Frailty of the Mind" and "As on A Sunshine Summer’s Day." His other works include "St. John Passion," "Rodrigo and Agrippina," "La Resurrezione," "Ode for the Queen's Birthday," "Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate," "Jephtha," "Water Music" and "Music for the Royal Fireworks." Before he died, Handel lost his eyesight due to cataracts. Handel was buried at the Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. Antonio Vivaldi He was born on March 4, 1678 in Venice, Italy. He died July 28, 1741 in Vienna, Austria. His full name was Antonio Lucio Vivaldi. He is believed to have invented the ritornello form; he was a virtuoso violinist, composer and maestro de’ concertin who influenced instrumental music during the later part of the Baroque period. Vivaldi also worked at the Ospedale della Pietà, first as a violin master, then as instrumental music director and later, as a contributor of compositions. He also worked for Prince Philip of Hesse-Darmstadt as director of secular music. He is famous for his over 500 concertos; he also wrote oratorios, operas and sonatas. Vivaldi learned to play the violin through his father, Giovanni Battista, and they even toured Venice together where he performed. 1696 is known as his first public performance, he performed with his father. Among his greatest works are his oratorios; "Moyses Deus Pharaonis," and "Juditha triumphans devicta Holofernes barbarie," his operas "Ottone in villa" and "Orlando finto pazzo" and his concertos "La Primavera," "The Four Seasons" and "Il favorito." Before Vivaldi became a well-renowned musician, he was first a priest. He was fondly called “The Red Priest” due to the color of his hair. He withdrew from the priesthood in 1706. He made his debut as a composer in 1713. "The end of all good music is to affect the soul."
-Claudio monteverdi The figured bass: Since musicians were familiar with the basic harmony, it became unnecessary to write the chords out in full. Instead, the composers put a numeral, indicating the harmony required, above or below the bass note. The appreciation of this principal on a large scale resulted in "the most successful system of musical shorthand ever devised"- the figured bass or thorough bass (basso continuo). The actual filling in and elaboration of the harmony was left to the performer. The figured bass required at least two players: one to perform the bass line, such as, a cello, double bass, or bassoon, and the other to fill in or "realize" the chords on an instrument capable of harmony, such as a harpischord or organ, guitar or lute. This is called, improvisation. The singer or player was expected to add his own embellishments to what was written down. (like today in jazz) "The modern composer builds on the foundation of truth."
-unknown Many musical forms were born in that era, like the concerto and sinfonia. Forms such as the sonata, contata, and oratio flourished. The End
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