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3: Connecting Evidence to Claim CRWP

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Jodi Allan

on 2 February 2017

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Transcript of 3: Connecting Evidence to Claim CRWP

CRWP Mini-Unit
Connecting Evidence to Claims
Text Set: Fast Food
Session One
Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using valid reasoning. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence…demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources…and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

Draw evidence from …informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Learning Targets
Illustrating
Using specific examples from the text to support the claim

Countering

“Pushing back” against the text in some way
(e.g., disagree with it, challenge something it says, or interpret it differently)
Authorizing
Referring to an “expert” to support the claim
HARRIS MOVES:
Different Ways to Use Evidence

Read, annotate, & discuss the text set.

Draft a claim related to this issue that you would like to defend.

Identify quotations, facts, and statistics in these articles that will help you support that claim.

What We Will Do in This Unit:
Joseph Harris calls the use of others' words
"forwarding."

There are a few different ways to forward someone else's ideas. We will call these the Harris Moves.
Read, Annotate, & Discuss Each Text
First, use the skills you already have to close read the text; be sure to identify the writer's
claim
and
supporting facts/details
.
Text 1

Text 2


Text 3

Text 4
"America's Top 10 Healthiest Fast Food Restaurants"

Next, on the
LEFT
side of your WNB, record
two or three important passages
from the text. Be sure to cite it (write the title) so you know which text it came from later on
(this is what THEY SAY)


About 4 Minutes
Finally, on the RIGHT side of your WNB, write
your
thoughts about the text
(this is I SAY)

About 4 Minutes
First, use the skills you already have to close read the text; identify the writer's
claim
and
supporting facts/details
.
Next, on the LEFT side of your WNB, record
two or three important passages
from the text. Be sure to cite it so you know which text it came from later on
(THEY SAY)


About 4 Minutes
Finally, on the RIGHT side of your WNB, write
your
thoughts about the text
(I SAY)


About 4 Minutes
First, use the skills you already have to close read the text; identify the writer's
claim
and
supporting facts/details
.
Next, on the LEFT side of your WNB, record

two or three important passages
from the text. Be sure to cite it so you know which text it came from later on
(THEY SAY)


About 4 Minutes
Finally, on the RIGHT side of your WNB, write
your
thoughts about the text
(I SAY)


About 4 Minutes
First, use the skills you already have to close read the text; identify the writer's
claim
and
supporting facts/details
.
Next, on the LEFT side of your WNB, record
two or three important passages
from the text. Be sure to cite it so you know which text it came from later on
(THEY SAY)

About 4 Minutes
Finally, on the RIGHT side of your WNB, write
your
thoughts about the text
(I SAY)


About 4 Minutes
Joining the Conversation
What do
you
have to say about the issue presented
in the text set?
A good claim is
defensible
and
debatable.

One problem writers sometimes have is
using evidence effectively.

First, we’ll focus on
connecting
illustrating evidence

to the claim.
Sample Claim:

Fast food restaurants can offer fattening foods, but they should revise their menu choices to include healthier options.


Source:
"The Effects of Fast Food on the Body"

Authors: Pietrangelo and Carey

Published: November 2, 2015

http://www.healthline.com/health/fast-food-effects-on-body

Evidence from Text

This is the evidence that we forward to advance our argument.
(
They Say)
Connect to Claim
This is where we’ll explain how the evidence is relevant to our claim and imagine the outcome, if we take this action.
(I Say)
How could I connect this piece of evidence to my purpose/claim?

Countering
Evidence from Research

This is the evidence that we forward to advance our argument.
(
They Say)
Connect to Claim
This is where we’ll explain how the evidence is relevant to our claim and imagine the outcome, if we take this action.
(I Say)
The author is suggesting that fast food is not good for you and there not "reputable." I contend that fast food
can
be reputable. This is another important reason why the consumer needs to know what they are ordering, and that can only happen if restaurants are transparent about their menus' nutritional content. Also, there are some fast food restaurants that don't use the cheapest and therefore the most processed products; they would not appreciate their food being discredited. Not all fast food is bad for people.

How could I connect this piece of evidence to my claim that
fast food CAN be healthy if people know what to order?

Revisit Your Claim:
Next Steps: Return the Writing Side . Add your counter to your argument. You can do this for whichever side you want.

Revise your draft to include this new text in which you counter an opposing argument.
Session 2

Habit:

Writers consider the

relationship

between/among texts.

Then they consider
their position

in the conversation.
We have read three texts about fast food.

Now, we will create a simple graphic to illustrate the relationship between the these texts

*Remember:
We did this in Unit 2 for the text set about later school start times.
Let's take about 10 minutes
Turn and Talk
Share your graphic, your claim, and your thinking with your partner.
Drafting Claims
In Your WNB:
Draft a claim about fast food
You have evidence from the texts to support your argument
Someone else may have an opposing viewpoint.
About 5 minutes
Turn and Talk
Share your claim with your partner to get some quick feedback.
3 minutes
Draw a chart like this in your WNB.
Illustrating
Start by finding a quote from either text that
illustrates
your claim.

Jot it word for word on the left side of the chart.
Write your claim at the top
Now
connect the quote
to the claim.

We usually call this
warranting or reasoning.
Illustrating
Using specific examples from the text to support the claim
Evidence

Connection

Possible Outcome
(Quote)

(Warranting)

(What might be the outcome if we accept this reasoning? What could be the impact on the issue or problem? Connect the dots for reader)
Finally, extend your thinking about the evidence by
discussing the impact
it could have on the problem you are trying to solve.
Turn and Talk
Discuss your evidence and your reasoning with your partner.

Remind him or her of your claim first!
Authorizing
How could we use this move
to enhance our argument?

Authorizing
:
Referring to an “expert” to support the claim

1. We
select a compelling piece of evidence
.

2. We
identify the source
of the evidence.

3. We
show the importance of that source
,
if it is not obvious.
Evidence

Expert


Importance
Why is this source credible?
Why should we pay attention?
"Children and adolescents take in more calories in fast food and other restaurants than at home. Eating at a restaurant adds 160-310 calories a day."
JAMA Pediatrics 2013 Study
JAMA is the Journal of the American Medical Association. They are a reputable source of information which publishes recommendations and studies.
http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics


One sack of “hash bites” or “potato snackers” from White Castle, for example, contains 10 grams of very unhealthy trans fat. The American Heart Association recommends we consume less than 2 grams of trans fat per day. So in one side order, you’ve just eaten more than five days’ worth of heart-busting trans fat!
How is this writer using

AUTHORIZING
?
from Healthy Fast Food: Tips for Making Healthier Fast Food Choices
Retrieved 7-16-14 from http://www.helpguide.org/life/fast_food_nutrition.htm
Turn and Talk
Who is the expert/source?
Why is the source credible?
Let's try one example with a turn and talk partner
Organizations point to high rates of obesity among children. "[I]t doesn't make sense to advertise and market unhealthy food to children at all, much less in schools," said Margo Wootan.


From First Lady Proposes Ban on Junk Food Marketing in Schools
ADAPTED FROM AN ARTICLE BY MAGGIE FOX, NBC NEWS RETRIEVED 6-10-14 FROM HTTP://WWW.NBCNEWS.COM/HEALTH/KIDS-HEALTH/FIRST-LADY-PROPOSES-BAN-JUNK-FOOD-MARKETING-SCHOOLS-N38201

Turn and Talk
Center for Science in the Public
Interest nutrition policy director
Margo Wootan is the
She is the nutrition policy director for the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI). We would expect that a policy director would be up on the latest research in order to make recommendations for policies. Her organization is an independent center that focuses on providing information that will lead to good decisions for people (as opposed to business or government).

Why is the source credible?
Independent Practice
Draw the 3 column chart in your WNB.
Review your text set on Fast Food.
Select
2-3 pieces of compelling evidence
that support your claim in which the
expert source is clearly identified
.
Think:
Is the source reputable? Why?
In what ways is this person or agency an “expert”?
How can I use this information to support my claim?

Who is the expert/source?
Why is the source credible?
How is this writer
using
authorizing
?
Evidence

Source


Importance
Why is this source credible?
Why should we pay attention?
"The Effects of Fast Food on the Body"
"Your Kids Become What You Feed Them"
“Healthy Fast Food:
Tips for Making Healthier
Fast Food Choices”

(Optional)
Article 1
Article 2
Article 3
Extending
Using the source material in order to extend your ideas beyond it. The source material is a launchpad to where you want to end up with what you are saying.
Adding to Our Writing with Sentence Stems:
Choose 2 or 3 Stems to continue the conversation about the topic presented in the text set

X matters/is important because __________.
Although X may seem trivial, it is in fact crucial in terms of today’s concern over
The image makes me question...
Now I am thinking/I’m wondering/Just as I was thinking earlier...__________.
Ultimately, what is at stake here is __________.
Although I grant that __________, I still maintain that __________.

On the other hand...
A different way of looking at...
This ____ makes me wonder...
Further supporting my thinking is...
Something I never considered is...

I understand,... However,
I still... In some ways I still believe...but...
Although the article states...
I used to think,... but now I am thinking…

"The Effects of Fast Food on the Body" by Pietrangelo and Carey
Now, place yourself on the graphic. What claim/article/idea are you leaning towards in your own writing?
People would be more likely to make healthy choices at fast food restaurants
if there were more healthy menu options
and
the nutritional information of the food was visible on the menu.
Sample Claim:
Sample Claim:
Despite the unhealthiness of most fast food, there are ways one can eat healthy meals at a fast food restaurant.
"Fast food isn't necessarily bad, but in many cases it's highly processed and contains large amounts of carbohydrates, added sugar, unhealthy fats, and salt (sodium)"
(Carey and Pietrangelo)
.
This suggests that we should not label all fast food as "bad"-- people might make "bad choices" at fast food restaurants, however--especially if they do not know the nutritional content of the food they order.
Possible Outcome:

What might happen if we use this evidence to make a decision about how we'll think, act, or believe? (Your Warrant/Commentary)
If people knew about the calories, fat, and salt they were consuming in their fast food meal, they may decide against ordering that meal. Knowledge empowers people to make better decisions. One can assume people know that the Double Whopper with Bacon is unhealthy; people may think they are doing a good thing by ordering a salad instead. Of course, the salad may be equally as unhealthy, based on the toppings and dressing.

People could make healthier decisions--or at least, more informed decisions-- if the restaurants made nutritional information easily accessible for customers. McDonald's and Panera are two chains that have recently started posting calorie content directly next to their menu items.
Turn and Talk
Who is the expert/source?
Why is the source credible?
How is this writer using

AUTHORIZING
?
Learning Target:
I can make arguments to support my claim using
evidence
that
illustrates
,
authorizes
, and
counters
my claim.
Partner #1
will talk first-- 2 minutes
Partner #2,
give feedback on the claim.
Is it defensible and debatable?
Agenda
1. Turn and Talk to discuss graphics and claims with a partner.

2. Use the
Argument Planner
to collect evidence that illustrates and authorizes my claim--Workshop Time!
Column #1
Column #2
"
Your best bet is to buy your own groceries or go to a restaurant that serves reputable food
" ("Your Kids Become What You Feed Them").
Restaurants like Panera care about their customers' knowledge about their food. They have commercials that advertise the reputable, clean nature of their food. They offer antibiotic and hormone-free meats and have removed all artificial flavors and colors from their foods. People who eat at Panera know the ingredients are somewhat healthier than those at other fast foods restaurants, and they are empowered to make good choices because the nutritional information is easily accessible.
Possible Outcome or Result
Column #3
What might happen if we use this evidence to make a decision about how we will think or act?
Note: This is used in AP Lang's text set
Fast Food Text Set: Counterclaim
Argument Planner
You should have 3 sheets-- One for each source.

You should have at LEAST 2 quotes on each sheet.

You will be asked to include the following in your flash draft:
1 piece of
illustrating
evidence
1 piece of
authorizing
evidence
1 piece of
countering
evidence

CRWP Mini-Unit
Connecting Evidence to Claims
Text Set:
Should We Change the Way We Raise Boys?
from the NYT "Room for Debate"

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using valid reasoning. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence…demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources…and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

Draw evidence from …informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Learning Targets
Read, annotate, & discuss the text set.

Draft a claim related to this issue that you would like to defend.

Learn to use evidence in various ways: To illustrate, to authorize, and to counter.

Identify quotations, facts, and statistics in these articles that will help you support that claim.

Flash draft

What We Will Do in This Unit:
Independently
Read, Annotate, & Respond to Each Text

In Your WNB
On the
LEFT
side of your WNB,
record what you have identified
as the
CLAIM

from each text.
(That's 5 in all!)

About 5 Minutes
On the
RIGHT
side of your WNB,
write
your
thoughts
about the ideas presented in the texts and the topic in general.

About 4 Minutes
Adding to Our Writing with Sentence Stems:
Choose 2 or 3 Stems to continue the conversation about the topic presented in the text set

X matters/is important because __________.
Although X may seem trivial, it is in fact crucial in terms of today’s concern over
The image makes me question...
Now I am thinking/I’m wondering/Just as I was thinking earlier...__________.
Ultimately, what is at stake here is __________.
Although I grant that __________, I still maintain that __________.

On the other hand...
A different way of looking at...
This ____ makes me wonder...
Further supporting my thinking is...
Something I never considered is...

I understand,... However,
I still... In some ways I still believe...but...
Although the article states...
I used to think,... but now I am thinking…

Joining the Conversation
What do
you
have to say about the issue presented
in the text set?
A good claim is
defensible,

debatable

Session 1

Habit:

Writers consider the

relationship

between/among texts.

Then they consider
their position

in the conversation.
Turn and Talk
Share your graphic and your thinking
with your partner.
3 minutes
Drafting Claims
In Your WNB:
Draft a claim or two about the raising of boys
You have evidence from the texts to support your argument
Someone else may have an opposing viewpoint.
About 7 minutes
Turn and Talk
Share your claim with your partner to get some quick feedback.
3 minutes
Article 1
Article 2
Article 3
Now, place yourself on the graphic. What claim/article/idea are you leaning towards in your own writing?
Illustrating
Using specific examples from the text to support the claim

Countering

“Pushing back” against the text in some way
(e.g., disagree with it, challenge something it says, or interpret it differently)
Authorizing
Referring to an “expert” to support the claim
HARRIS MOVES:
Different Ways to Use Evidence

Joseph Harris calls the use of others' words
"forwarding."

There are a few different ways to forward someone else's ideas. We will call these the Harris Moves.
Extending
Using the source material in order to extend your ideas beyond it. The source material is a launchpad to where you want to end up with what you are saying.
One problem writers sometimes have is
using evidence effectively.

First, we’ll focus on
connecting
illustrating evidence

to the claim.
Evidence from Text

This is the evidence that we forward to advance our argument.
(
They Say)
Connect to Claim
This is where we’ll explain how the evidence is relevant to our claim and imagine the outcome, if we take this action.
(I Say)
Draw a chart like this in your WNB.
Illustrating
Start by finding a quote a text that
illustrates

your claim.

Jot it word for word on the left side of the chart. Include the author of the article.
Write your claim at the top
Now
connect the quote
to your claim.

We usually call this
warranting or reasoning.
Illustrating
Using specific examples from the text to support the claim
Illustrating Evidence

Connection

Possible Outcomes
(Quote & Author)

(Warranting)

(What might be the outcome if we accept this reasoning? What could be the impact on the issue or problem? Connect the dots for reader)
Finally, extend your thinking about the evidence by
discussing the impact
it could have on the problem you are trying to solve.
Turn and Talk
Discuss your evidence and your reasoning with your partner.

Remind him or her of your claim first!
Possible Outcome:

What might happen if we use this evidence to make a decision about how we'll think, act, or believe? (Your Warrant/Commentary)
Authorizing
How could we use this move
to enhance our argument?

Authorizing
:
Referring to an “expert” to support the claim

1. We
select a compelling piece of evidence
.

2. We
identify the source
(author, organization, etc.)
of the evidence.

3. We
show the importance of that source
,
if it is not obvious.
Evidence

Expert


Importance
Why is this source credible?
Why should we pay attention?
How is this writer using

AUTHORIZING
?
Turn and Talk
Who is the expert/source?
Why is the source credible?
Let's try one example with a turn and talk partner
Turn and Talk
Independent Practice
Pull out your chart & label it Authorizing.
Review your text set on Raising Boys.
Select
3 pieces of compelling evidence
that support your claim in which the
expert source is clearly identified
.
Think:
Is the source reputable? Why?
In what ways is this person or agency an “expert”?
How can I use this information to support my claim?

Who is the expert/source?
Why is the source credible?
How is this writer
using
authorizing
?
Evidence

Source


Importance
Why is this source credible?
Why should we pay attention?
Turn and Talk
Who is the expert/source?
Why is the source credible?
How is this writer using

AUTHORIZING
?
Countering
Next Steps: Return the Writing Side . Add your counter to your argument. You can do this for whichever side you want.

Revise your draft to include this new text in which you counter an opposing argument.
Note: This is used in AP Lang's text set
They Say
I Say
Before the Unit Begins
Turn and Talk
about the ideas presented in the text set. Discuss what you think is the claim of each article.
4 minutes
Now let's make a
simple graphic
to show the relationship among texts.

This can be tricky when working with 5 texts.
Consider how you can group the texts (by claim, perhaps?)


about 5 minutes
Remember-- You must be able to prove your claim with the text set you have!
& NUANCED
http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2015/11/09/do-we-need-to-change-the-way-we-raise-boys
TEXT SET FOUND AT:
The Process We Will Use
MODEL
Now take some time to look
for
illustrating evidence
in the text set
that supports your claim.

Find at least THREE (3) Quotes (from any of the articles).

Record on the chart you made in your WNB.
HOMEWORK:
Finish recording and charting illustrating evidence, if needed.

*This may not be checked in late.*
When considering authorizing evidence, ask yourself:

How is the
author
an expert or authority on the topic?

How is a
person or organization
the author references in the article an authority on the topic?
Look it up!
Research if necessary!

How can we learn more about the authors of our text set?

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2015/11/09/do-we-need-to-change-the-way-we-raise-boys
Reminder:
1. Our text set is "
Should we change the way we raise boys?
"
2. This unit is about
connecting evidence to your claim
! You must find evidence
from our 5 articles
to
prove
your claim!
Countering
Could you COUNTER some of the evidence that OPPONENTS of your position might offer?
Countering
is another move in argument writing.

First, we acknowledge a claim that is in opposition to ours.

Example: Others will argue that
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