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Wahl DeBlij Chapter 9 (Urban Geography)

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Matthew Wahl

on 19 April 2015

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Transcript of Wahl DeBlij Chapter 9 (Urban Geography)

Rank Size Rule
Chapter 9
Site
site vs. situation
World at night
Urban
Geography

Resources
Key Question:
When and Why did People Start Living in Cities?
City
– a conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics.
Cities
People are increasingly from the countryside to urban areas
Increasing urbanization:
Urban-Central city and suburban realm
Non-agricultural

1800 – 3% urban;
2000 – 47% urban.
2030 – 60% urban?


Greater urban population in MDCs
Greater urban growth in LDCs
An Urban World
Shenzhen, China
The Modern Process of Urbanization –

a rural area can become urbanized quite quickly in the modern world

20,000-3.1 mil.
Shanghai
1990 &2010
Dubai (UAE) skyline
Urban living:Specific States
The First Urban Revolution
Two components enable the
formation of cities:

an agricultural surplus
Came with advances in technology
social stratification
leadership class
–decision makers and organizers who control resources
The First Urban Revolution
Before urbanization, people often clustered in
agricultural villages
relatively small, most involved in agriculture.
Began About 10,000 years ago
Agricultural Villages
In each of these hearths, an agricultural surplus and social stratification created the conditions necessary for cities to form and be maintained.
Five Hearths of Urbanization
A large scale movement of people to cities to work in manufacturing. Made possible by:

1.
second agricultural revolution
that improved food production and created a larger surplus

2.
industrialization
, which encouraged growth of cities near industrial resources
The Second Urban Revolution
Industrialized regions of Europe, 1914
Duisburg, Germany
During the second half of the 20th century…

Nature of manufacturing changed and locations changed, too. Many factories have been abandoned, creating “rust belts” out of once-thriving industrial districts.
Key Question:
Where are Cities
Located and Why?
absolute location of a city
Situation
a city’s static location, often chosen for trade, defense, or religion.
relative location of a city
a city’s place in the region and the world around it.
Green Country, Oklahoma
Trade area
– an adjacent region within which a city’s influence is dominant. television, media, etc.
Trade area
Rank-Size Rule:

in a model urban hierarchy, the population of the city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.

For example:
largest city = 12 million
2nd largest = 6 million
3rd largest = 4 million
4th largest = 3 million

1/n
The leading city of a country. The city is disproportionately larger than the rest of the cities in the country.

For example: London, UK
Mexico City, Mexico
Paris, France

- the rank-size rule does not work for a
country with a primate city
Primate City
Primate Cities
Positives
Negatives

Advantages of
agglomeration
of economic activity.

Large market
for goods and services.
enhanced flow of information and ideas in large population
Unequal distribution

of investments
deters national economic development.

Impact of
centrifugal forces
and difficulties of political cohesion on economic development


Hexagon shape – trade areas

1)
threshold
-- the minimum market needed to bring a firm or city selling goods and services into existence and to keep it in business

2)
range
-- the average maximum distance people will travel to purchase goods and services
Central Place Theory – Walter Christaller
Hinterland – outlying area serviced by an urban center.
C = city
T = town
V = village
H = hamlet
Hexagonal Hinterlands
Sketch a map of your city or town and the cities or towns nearby. Make a list of goods and services available in each of these towns. Do the ideas about central places presented in this section of the chapter apply to your region?
Key Question:
How are Cities Organized, and How do they Function?
What does the urban morphology of the city tell us about the city?
Berlin, Germany
With wall (above)
And without wall (right)
Urban Morphology
The layout of a city, its physical form and structure.
What does the functional zonation of the city tell us about the city?
Cairo, Egypt
Central city (above)
Housing projects (right)
Functional Zonation
The division of the city into certain regions for certain purposes.
Three Classical Models of Urban Structure
North America
Ernest Burgess
Homer Hoyt
Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman
Concentric Zone Model: Burgress (1923)
Based on
Bid-rent
the idea that land values are highest in the center of a town or city.
High-rise, high-density buildings being found near the CBD, with low-density, sparse developments on the edge of the town or city
Incorporates linear and transport corridors
Growth on periphery (“pie slices”)
Continued emphasis on CBD
Sector Model (Hoyt) 1939
Sector Model
Today, major transportation arteries are generally freeways

Surrounding areas are often low-rent districts
Contrary to Hoyt’s theory

Often built through low-rent areas where land was
cheaper and political opposition was less
Multiple Nuclei Model (Harris and Ullman)
• Post World War II (1945)
• Multiple “centers of attraction”
• Less emphasis on a single CBD
Latin American City (Griffin-Ford model)

African City (de Blij model)

Southeast Asian City (McGee model)
Modeling the Cities of the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery
Latin American City (Griffin-Ford model)
Disamenity sector – very poorest parts of the city
eg. the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The African City
(de Blij model)
Southeast Asian City (McGee model)
Edge Cities

- office complexes
- shopping centers
- hotels
- restaurants
- entertainment facilities
- sports complexes
Urban Realms Model
Each realm is a separate economic, social and political entity that is linked together to form a larger metro framework.
Sunbelt Phenomenon
Millions of Americans moving from
the North & Midwest to South & southwest
Changed urban hierarchy by providing jobs in technology
Central Business District
Concentration of business and commerce in the downtown
High land values, tall buildings, etc.
Suburb
functionally uniform part of an urban area, usually adjacent to the city.
1970-2000 (37%-50%)
Central City
Part of the city(not suburban)
Mexico City
Istanbul
"Fun Facts" about Primate Cities
Paris (9.6 million) is definitely the focus of France while Marseilles has a population of 1.3 million.
Similarly, the United Kingdom has London as its primate city (7 million) while the second largest city, Birmingham, is home to a mere one million people.
Mexico City, Mexico (8.6 million) outshines Guadalajara (1.6 million).
A huge dichotomy exists between Bangkok (7.5 million) and Thailand's second city, Nanthaburi (481,000).
London
Key Question:
How do People Make Cities?
Powerful social and cultural forces shape the character of a city and create the cultural landscape of the city.
Which one is in a wealthy country?
How can you tell?
Luanda, Angola
SS Africa
Suburb of Tokyo
Sharp contrast between rich and poor
Often lack zoning laws or enforcement of zoning laws
Mexico City
Making Cities in the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery
Redlining
– financial institutions refusing to lend money in certain neighborhoods.
Blockbusting
– realtors sell a home at a low price to minority
"white flight"
Making Cities in the Global Core
Gentrification
– individuals buy up and rehabilitate houses, raising the housing value in the neighborhood and changing the neighborhood.


Hinsdale, Illinois (25% of houses have been torn down in last 20 years).
CBD ->Shopping Mall-> Big Box Store
Urban Sprawl
A counter to urban sprawl
Walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
Celebration, FL
Prairie Crossing, Grayslake IL


New Urbanism
Who are gated communities for?

How do the goals/purposes of gated communities differ across the world?
Gated Communities
European City
Migrants from former colonies
eg. Algerian Muslim neighborhoods in Paris, Jamaican in London

Public housing after WWII

Cities of the Periphery and Semiperiphery

Slum developments where the buildings end

Survive on remittances
eg. Mumbai, India
Ethnic Neighborhoods
Key Question:
What Role do Cities Play in Globalization?
Tokyo,
Japan

Cities that function at the global scale, beyond the reach of the state borders, functioning as the service centers of the world economy.
World Cities
The transformation of the city into an entertainment district, where major corporations encourage the consumption of their goods and services.

For example: Berlin, Germany
New York City
Spaces of Consumption
Times Square
New York City
Thinking through the challenges to the state presented in Chapter 8, predict whether and under what circumstances world cities could replace states as the basic and most powerful form of political organization in the world.
Many World cities are also primate cities & capital
Former colonies have primate cities
What types of urban geographies are being critiqued by the original lyrics of this song?
What do the images portrayed in the video say to further this critique?
Given the context of this video, what priorities do you think city planners should consider when building and reshaping cities?
Suburban downtowns, often located near key freeway intersections, often with:
Tear-downs & McMansions
houses that new owners buy with the intention of tearing it down to build a much larger home.
called McMansions because of their super size and their similar look.
Full transcript