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Causes and Consequences

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Meredith Gore

on 30 April 2014

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Transcript of Causes and Consequences

Understanding the causes and consequences of illegal, illicit, and deviant behavior in conservation
Dr .Meredith Gore
Department of Fisheries & Wildlife
School of Criminal Justice
Michigan State University
www.conservationcriminology.com

A common approach
Hotspot risks
Hunting/Poaching
Disease
Invasive species
Erosion
Fire
Agriculture
Urbanization
Logging
timber
charcoal
Poverty
Climate change

"Biodiversity hotspots"
Prioritize conservation activities to influence human behavior
Direct resources
Focus attention
Maximization-based approach
World's hottest biodiversity hotspot
Endemic species
89% plants
92% mammals
96% reptiles
99% amphibians
80% people live directly off land
Madagascar
Reducing risks
Extinction:
Irreversible
Cascades
Cultural heritage
Human well-being
TOO BIG TO FAIL?????
Conservation Crimes in Mada
Poaching
pocket book
cooking pot
Gemstone mining
Corruption
Resilience decreases
Poverty increases
Social stress
ecosystem stress
Namibia
Participatory Risk Mapping
Risk, conservation & human behavior
Conservation Criminology
Conservation Criminology @ MSU
Natural Resource Policy & Mgt.
Risk & Decision Science
CJ & Criminology
Technical characterization of risks, risk perception, trade-offs
Crime control, how and why people become what they do
Natural systems & interactions, ecological effects
Conservation Criminology
Interdisciplinary way of thinking about coupled human and natural systems
Suggestions for adapting to & mitigating global environmental issues
wildlife poaching
Description, explanation, and prediction of solutions to environmental problems
doesn't presuppose criminality or criminal justice responses
Information sharing/database creation
Move beyond limits of single disciplines
New tools, techniques, resources
Interdisciplinary
different languages
buy in from diverse sectors
cross-sectional vs. longitudinal data
end of the line
Challenges & Opportunities
Community-based NR management in Namibian conservancies in Zambezi region
Explore expert and layperson perceptions of risk
Predictive element for managing HWC risks?
www.conservationcriminology.com
Addressing the negative effects of trends...
CONSERVATION
=
maintenance of environmental quality and resources, or a balance among the species (including people) of a particular area
Global trends from human behavior
population growth = increasing
economic growth = losing momentum
fish catch = leveling off
forest cover = shrinking
carbon emissions = continuing to climb
water scarcity = spreading
ice melt = everywhere
bicycle production = rising
solar cell sales = increasing
Illegal
Illicit
Deviant
rule of law
rules in use
Irregularity
Scale
drugs: $320b
counterfeit: $250b
humans: $32b
oil: $11b
illegal wildlife: $10b

global financial integrity
2012:
WWF Fuller Symposium on Conservation Crime
2013:
900 rhinos poached in ZA (5000% increase)
2014:
US National Strategy on Wildlife Trafficking
UK Conference on Wildlife Crime


How do local people rank conservation risks rank?
December 2013
n = 49
Analamazotra Special Reserve region
How should society respond to conservation risks?
Activities

"certain kinds of wood can't be used to make fire"
Culpability

"if the poor guy has no job and has to support his family, I would close my eyes"
Relationships

"the links between family or power position are able to step over the rules"
Enforcement
"fokonolona is the best community to enforce the rules"
Punishment

"if someone breaks the rules they will be punished by their conscience"
Corruption
Commission of crime
Omission of duty
* President of VOI engages in hunting and tavy in forest [R006]
* People trading in rosewood strangely have regular papers [R002]
* As long as money is involved, responsibles close their eyes [R006]
Local Examples
Gore, Kahler, Ratsimbazafy, Rajaonson, Lewis. Poaching risks in a biodiversity hotspot. In preparation, Conservation Letters.
Gibbs, Gore, McGarrell, Rivers. 2010. Introducing conservation criminology: toward interdisciplinary scholarship on environmental risks. British Journal of Criminology, 50: 124-144.
Motivations
Gendered Perceptions
Moving Forward?
Situational Crime Prevention & Routine Activities (Namibia)
Marine Tenure (Ecuador)
Environmental Security (Mozambique)
Risk response & PRM (Madagascar)
(some) Issues to contend with
Militarization
Technology
Leadership
North/South
conservation requires compliance
Compliance with rules
How, when, where, who, why
use natural resources
regulations
international conventions
economics
social norms
informal institutions
detachment from social norm
learned behavior
People choose what they fear in relation to their way of life or culture:
opinions about social organization
4 prototypical cultures
hierarchic = accept, adapt
egalitarian = reject, oppose
fatalist = ignore, don't worry
individualist = embrace, opportunity

Gore, M. L., Ratsimbazafy, J., and M. L. Lute. (2013). Rethinking corruption in conservation crime: insights from Madagascar. Conservation Letters, DOI: 10.1111/conl.12032.
Reform
Kahler, J. S., Roloff, G., and M. L. Gore. (2013). Poaching risks in a community-based natural resource system. Conservation Biology, 27(1): 177-186.
Gore, M. L. and J. S. Kahler (2012). Gendered risk perceptions associated with human wildlife conflict: implications for participatory conservation. PlosONE 7(3): e32901.
Kahler, J. S. and M. L. Gore (2012). Beyond the cooking pot and pocket book: factors influencing noncompliance with wildlife poaching rules. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 35(2): 1-18.

reducing
risks
to people, species, & ecosystems
How do defenders reduce risks from attackers on the environment?
Community-based wildlife management
Poaching
elephants, rhinos
Hunting concessions
hippo
Outside actors being displaced from Southern Africa
Environmental security
Full transcript