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Copy of Deceptive Appeal
Transcript of Copy of Deceptive Appeal
Argumentum ad populum Deceptive Appeal Either-or fallacy Definition: Fallacy - an error in reasoning that
does not originate in improper logical
form. Different Fallacies material fallacy- error in what
the arguer is talking about. Description:
When only two choices are presented yet more exist. False dilemmas are usually characterized by “either this or that” language, but can also be characterized by omissions of choices. Another variety is the false trilemma, which is when three choices are presented when more exist. Example Example 1:
A mother may tell her child:
“Eat your broccoli or you won’t get desert.” Example: President George W. Bush: “You're either with us or against us.”
These types of arguments falls because the audience is not given a fair choice – there exist many alternate (and often more desirable) choices that are never offered to the listener for consideration.?
Argumentum ad populum Definition:
There are several variations of this fallacy, but we will emphasize two forms. Group Eight -occurs when a speaker makes a claim
that presents an artificial range of
-Those who use an either/or fallacy try to force their audience to accept a conclusion by presenting only two possible options, one of which is clearly more desirable. Verbal fallacies- error in how the arguer is
talking. FALSE DILEMMA also known as: false dichotomy, the either-or fallacy, either-or reasoning, fallacy of false choice, fallacy of false alternatives, black-and-white thinking, the fallacy of exhaustive hypotheses, bifurcation, excluded middle, no middle ground, polarization. Logical Form:
Either X or Y is true.
Either X, Y or Z is true Example 2:
"You are either with God, or against him."
An ignorant friend might say: “I’m not a doctor, but your runny nose and cough tell me that you either have a cold or the flu.”
Well, the only truth about the above statement is that the speaker is not a doctor. Although most people with these symptoms really do have the common cold or a touch of the flu, these options are not the only two available. Allergies, bronchitis, or thousands of more serious diseases could all display these two common symptoms. See your doctor for a diagnosis without relying on overgeneralizations or either/or fallacies.
Additional for Identifying Fallacies:
FOR YOUR INFORMATION
If you claim that an argument involves false dilemma, however, the burden of proof is on you to show why the dilemma is false: be prepared to identify at least one additional, relevant option which is omitted that creates a false dilemma.
NOTE: Not every either/or choice is fallacious — there may be only two reasonable alternatives. Many lights, for example, are wired so that they must exist in one of two states: on or off; likewise, a woman either is or is not pregnant, etc. In logic, (Latin for "appeal to the people" this is a fallacious argument that concludes a proposition to be true because many or most people believe it "Bandwagon": the fallacy of attempting to prove a conclusion on the grounds that all or most people think or believe it is true.
Most, many, or all persons believe statement p is true.
"Statement p is true."
"appeal to emotion": the fallacy of using expressive and emotively laden language to arouse emotion in support of a conclusion.
Emotions such as enthusiasm, pride, anger, or disgust are used to express evidence for statement p
Statement p is true. a.) Everyone likes beautiful people, so buy
Teeth-Brite(tm) toothpaste and become
beautiful. Examples: b.) Polls suggest that President Jones will win the
election, so you may as well vote for him. Many advertising slogans are based on this fallacy. Remember: The basis of the ad populum appeal is the assumption that large numbers of persons are more likely to be right than a given individual is likely to be right. Also, in light of peer pressure, many persons feel it's better to be normal than to go against the crowd. The main problem with this fallacy is the mere fact that many people agree on something often does not imply that what they agree on is true; nevertheless, the fact that many people agree, can be relevant evidence for the truth in some instances, as shown below. The distinction is based on the nature of the relevance of the premisses to the conclusion. Thanks for Listening!!