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Imperial China unit 4 ch 16-19

Imperial China unit 4 ch 16-19

rich canacci

on 21 March 2013

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Transcript of Imperial China unit 4 ch 16-19

Ancient UNIT 4 Ch. 16 - 19 Ch. 16
The Political Development of Imperial China
220 – 1644 AD (CE) 16.1 Introduction
Imperial China is divided into periods ruled by dynasties (ruling families)
first unified in the 3rd century BC
several ways they found qualified leaders to administer government were;
-aristocracy (wealthy landowners)
-meritocracy (officials of proven merit) sometimes even foreigners
emperors relied on bureaucracy and various ways of choosing govt officials
early emperors chose them from the aristocracy 16.2 The Government of Imperial China
in 221 Qin Shinhuangdi (first emperor) Qin dynasty
emperors relied on bureaucracy and various ways of choosing govt officials
early emperors chose them from the aristocracy
China’s Imperial Dynasties
relatives took over when leader died (dynasty), made people believe they had a mandate from heaven & if something bad happened it was God mad at their enemy
Breakup & reunification
Han created a civil service exam where candidate had to pass a test mostly based on Confucian learning
end of Han rule in 220; corrupt relatives took control of the government & there was a period of disarray
after a long period of division the Sui & Tang dynasties reunified China, reinstated the civil service exam
in 589 Sui dynasty reunified China, heavy taxes led to decline
General Li Yuan declared himself emperor in 618 starting the rule of the Tang dynasty 16.3 Aristocracy: The Tang Dynasty
-Tang rulers relied on a large bureaucracy
-used civil service exams to choose government based on the teachings of Confucius
-emperors chose aristocrats to help them govern
-to improve bureaucracy Han emperors created civil service examinations
-some officials were hired because their family members held high government rank
-peasant rebellions and battles ended the Tang dynasty
-beginning in the 960’s the Song dynasty rose to power
-civil service examinations are tests given to qualify candidates for positions in the government 16.4 Meritocracy: The Song Dynasty
• Under song emperors, the idea of scholar reached it’s height
• The exams were influenced by a new school of thought known as Neo-Confucianism
• This new teaching blended the teaching of Confucius with elements of Buddhism and Daoism
• During the song dynasty scholar officials performed many tasks
• The scholars arrange ancient manuscripts
• A Neo-Confucian scholar Zhu-Xi selected and commented on Classic Chinese writings
• Confucius taught that people must act properly in five important relationships: ruler and subject, father and son, older sibling and younger sibling, husband and wife, and friend and friend
• Under the song, people from lower classes gained the ability to become scholar officials 16.4 Meritocracy: The Song Dynasty
•Under song emperors, the idea of scholar officials reached it’s height
•The exams were influenced by a new school of thought known as Neo-Confucianism
•This new teaching blended the teaching of Confucius with elements of Buddhism and Daoism
•Confucius taught that people must act properly in five important relationships: ruler and subject, father and son, older sibling and younger sibling, husband and wife, and friend and friend
neo-Confucianism – relationship behaviors, those above be kind to those below; those below respect & obey those above
•Under the Song, people from lower classes gained the ability to become scholar officials
•the Song dynasty created a meritocracy of scholar officials 16.5 Government by Foreigners: The Period of Mongol Rule
In 1276 the Mongols captured China’s imperial govt
The Mongol leader, Kublai Khan, took the title of emperor of China
For nearly 100 years, from 1279 to 1368, China was under Mongol rule
Mongol emperors relied on family, friends, and trusted foreigners to rule
Class Groups in Society (in order of power)
Foreigners (people from outside of China who were their friends)
Northern Chinese (more accustomed to the Mongols than southerners)
Southern Chinese came last
Chinese scholars were used only as teachers and minor officials
other Chinese worked as clerks and some rose to important positions
In the 1350s and 1360s local rebels rose up to fight against them
In 1368, the Mongol dynasty collapsed 16.6 The Revival of the Civil Service System
Ming dynasty again restored the civil service exam
it provided a well organized government
exams were used to fill government positions & lasted into the 20th century
the education of its scholar-officials emphasized moral behavior, justice, kindness, loyalty to the emperor, proper conduct, and the importance of family
the exam system gave poor men who were ambitious and hard working the chance to be government officials, it also ensured that officials were trained and talented, not merely rich or related to the emperor
China’s civil service system also stood in the way of progress
the exams did not test the understanding of science, mathematics, or engineering
Confucian scholars also had little respect for merchants, business, and trade
under the Ming, this outlook dominated, and trade and business were not encouraged
bureaucracy became set in its ways, its inability to adapt contributed to the fall of the Ming in 1644 16.7 Chapter Summary
how China was governed from 220 – 1644 AD
emperors relied on bureaucracy and various ways of choosing govt officials
early emperors chose from the aristocracy
Han created a civil service exam where candidate had to pass a test mostly based on Confucian learning
after a long period of division the Sui & Tang dynasties reunified China, reinstated the civil service exam, but it was bias in favor of aristocrats under the Tang
the Song dynasty created a meritocracy of scholar officials
Mongol emperors relied on family, friends, and trusted foreigners to rule
Ming dynasty again restored the civil service exam but the system was bureaucratic and bogged down Ch. 17
China Develops a
New Economy 17.1 Introduction
large growth of the economy under the Song dynasty; 960-1279 AD
boom in rice production fed trade, commerce & urbanization
with prosperity came population growth which led to urbanization (growth of cities)
the Grand Canal linked the north Huang He (Yellow River) with the south Chang Jiang (Yangtze River)

"It is indeed surprising to observe the multitude and the size of the vessels that are continually passing and repassing loaded with merchandise of the greatest value." -Marco Polo 17.2 Changes in Agriculture
Reasons for Agricultural Changes
during the Song dynasty changes in agriculture were a major reason for the growth of China’s economy
during 13th century there was a new kind of rice, better farming methods, movement of farming from northern to southern China
the new type of rice was resistant to drought & matured in 2 months which meant @ least 2 crops per year & as many as 5
irrigation systems crisscrossed the rice paddies to bring in water where needed, chain pumps, dams, dikes were used effectively
China's population grew to more than one million people
by 1207 about 65 million people lived in the south compared to the 50 million people in the north ( the north used to be the more populous)
food meant time away from farming to make silk, cotton, cloth, and other products to sell or trade
the population grew to over 100 million as a result
chain pump- a pump with containers attached to a loop of chain to lift water and carry it where it is wanted
harrow- a farm tool used to break up and even out ground
paddies- flooded fields where rice grows 17.3 The Growth of Trade and Commerce
trade and commerce had already begun growing during the Tang Dynasty
Reasons for Growth in Trade and Commerce
a vast network of rivers and canals connected different parts of China
farmers in central China could ship their goods by water which was faster than roads
oxcarts and pack animals use roads and bridges that cross the canals
Characteristics of China's Commercial Growth
products traded- rice, silk, tea, jade, and porcelain, traveled long trade routes to India, Arabia and Europe
Results of Growth in Trade and Commerce
growth of the merchant class, peasants selling crops, animals & things they made (silk, charcoal and wine), merchants traded copper coins & paper money, street peddlers sold goods from the packs they carried
business brought prosperity giving China the highest standard of living in the world, commercial centers grew into big cities 17.4 Urbanization
urbanization increased during Song dynasty, China had largest cities in the world
people moved to cities & made a living as merchants, traders, peddlers and shopkeepers
streets had landowners, merchants, traders, peddlers, shopkeepers, money lenders, peasants trading silk, charcoal, wine, merchants, copper coins, paper money, crops, etc.
it bettered the quality of every day Chinese lives 17.5 Chapter Summary
new rice seed & farming improvements greatly increased production which led to a larger population
the center of the civilization shifted from north to south because the warmer wetter climate was better for growing
landowners with more money to buy luxuries further stimulated growth of commerce
river & canal networks along with improvements in navigation made overseas trade easier
increase in currency when China went to a money economy
growth of cities meant merchants, peddlers, peasants, & traders all sold different kinds of goods
Chinese people enjoyed the highest standard of living in the world as a result Song Dynasty coins Song Dynasty chain pump farming harrow Tang Dynasty Song Dynasty
The Song dynasty came to power in China in 960 AD after a period of turmoil and civil wars in China. Emperor Taizu of Song led numerous military campaigns to unite the country and in the long years of Song rule that followed China achieved many great things. Paper currency, the magnetic compass and gunpowder were all used for the first time during the Song reign. In 1127 the Manchuruan Jin dynasty seized the northern frontier of the Song and forced the court to relocate, starting the period known as the Southern Song. The population grew rapidly which forced a change in economics and the Song emperors tried to make use of gunpowder to improve their military forces, but after an extremely long reign, in 1271, the Song were conquered by the Mongol forces of Kublai Khan who was then proclaimed Emperor of China of the Yuan dynasty. During the long years of Song rule the examination system became much more central, printing was improved, many scientific and engineering advances were made. Confucianist philosophy flourished and knowledge was expanded. The last nominal Song monarch, Emperor Bing, drowned himself rather than be taken prisoner after being defeated by the Mongols at the battle of Yamen. rice paddies rice paddies Song dynasty barge Song dynasty barges Ch. 17 Ch. 16 Grand Canal Ch. 18
Chinese Discoveries
and Inventions 18.1 Introduction
discoveries & interventions; many of these came under the Tang & Song dynasties
-advances in exploration, travel, industry, military technology, everyday objects & disease prevention 18.2 Exploration and Travel
Chinese inventions
made exploration & travel safer & faster
Improving Travel by Sea
the first magnetic compass
-magnetic mineral called loadstone was used with the Earth’s magnetic field to find direction during navigation at sea
improvement in boat construction
-created watertight compartments sealed with caulk to keep vessels afloat magnetic compass watertight compartments paddle wheel boat mechanism canal lock segmental arched bridge Ch. 18 Improving Travel on Rivers,
Lakes, Canals, & Bridges
the first paddle wheel boat
-series of paddles on a turning wheel causing boat to move with more speed & accuracy
canal lock
-gated chambers filled or emptied used to raise or lower vessels as water level changed along a waterway
segmental arched bridge
-a shallow arch or small segment of a circle bridge support structure 18.3 Industry
invented paper-making process in the 2nd century
made from bark & then rags
only culture in the world having this technology at the time
historically paper is one of the most important inventions in history for all cultures Printing
woodblock printing – carved wooden blocks with letters to make print when covered in ink and pressed onto paper
created an industry of printers who turned out religious works and other types of text printed on scrolls
movable type –consisted of separate blocks that could be moved around in different order and used again after one job was done to make a different text altogether
no longer did the blocks have to be made each time which made it much easier, faster & more available to be mass produced
making written materials widely available spread learning throughout China Porcelain (fine pottery)
made by combining clay, rocks, quartz, & feldspar crushed, mixed and baked in a kiln
the resulting pottery was white, hard, and waterproof
it became a major industry in China
mass production of dishes, bowls, and vases
to this day fine dinnerware is still known as “china” http://videos.howstuffworks.com/science-channel/29779-what-the-ancients-knew-porcelain-video.htm Steel
China first made steel in 200 BC
they learned to make cast iron by melting wrought iron which is softer & melting and then molding crude iron with it
blowing air onto molten cast iron & mixing iron types creates the chemical reaction that results in steel
this led to many uses & advances in all types of inventions including military technology China's great discoveries China's sports & toys movable type making paper Porcelain watertight compartment boats agriculture http://videos.howstuffworks.com/science-channel/29775-what-the-ancients-knew-chinese-magnetic-compass-video.htm magnetic compass 18.4 Military Technology
alchemists experimented with mixtures of natural ingredients
developed powerful gunpowder weapons
-the flamethrower used gunpowder & oil to spray fire
-artillery shells exploded after being hurled by a catapult
-grenades were lit and thrown by hand
-large bombs & weapons similar to today’s rifles & cannons
black powder was used for rocket technology
-multi-staged rockets that dropped arrows were also used 18.5 Everyday Objects
playing cards were invented in the 9th century
paper money was invented in the late 8th early 9th century
mechanical clock was invented about the 8th century and improved through the years 18.6 Disease Prevention
poisonous smoke as a disinfectant
steaming cloths of sick people to kill germs
inoculation stimulated a person’s immune system to fight particular diseases which led to drugs called vaccines mechanical clock paddle wheel boat movable type Erie Canal Ch. 19 Ch 19
China’s Contacts with
the Outside World 19.1 Introduction
how cultural exchange affected China
foreign contacts of the Tang, Yuan (Mongol), and Ming dynasties
Xuan Zand brought back Buddhism from a trip to India 19.2 Foreign Contacts Under the Tang Dynasty
The Influence of Traders & Visitors
a network of camel caravan trade routes became The Silk Road
the Tang took control of central Asia making travel safer & trade flourished in the Central Asian Kingdoms, Persia, Byzantine Empire, Korean, Japanese, Indonesian, Indian, Turkish, Tibetan, Jewish, traders, missionaries, visitors were all welcome and even lived in some seaports
they traded silk, porcelain, paper, iron, jade, ivory, cotton, perfumes, spices, horses, sugar, wine, new medicines, rubies, pearls, other jewels, glass goblets, spinach, garlic, mustard, peas, cloves, chairs instead of cushions on the floor, music, Polo & other games all greatly influenced Chinese culture
new religions built houses of worship, Buddhism gained great influence and ran schools, public baths, hospitals, monasteries & Buddhist festivals became popular holidays Changing Attitudes
toward the end of the Tang foreigners & their beliefs became less welcome
the government placed restrictions on foreigners
in 843, the Tang needed money & seized Buddhist property; monasteries, shrines, & temples were destroyed
trade shifted from the Silk Road to the sea and diminished 19.3 Foreign Contacts Under the Mongols
Mongols conquered the Song and called their dynasty the Yuan
foreigners ruled China for 100 years
again the Silk Road became safe & trade flourished along with maritime trade
travel & trade expanded as never before & more foreigners came to China
Thriving Trade and Cultural Exchange
trade was actively promoted and stations were set up along the Silk Road every 20 miles
safe regular travel regularly flourished from Europe to China as did sea trade & Europeans learned about gun powder and printing The Role of Foreigners in China
under Kublai Khan life was unpleasant for native Chinese
Mongols & foreigners had more privileges, didn’t pay taxes, could travel freely, and were higher on the social order
foreign officials were harsh & dishonest
native Chinese resented & distrusted foreigners 19.4 Foreign Contacts Under the Ming dynasty
-rebellion against the Mongols put the Ming in power who tried to isolate China from foreign influences
Tributaries and Maritime Expeditions
payments of “tribute” were expected before foreigners were permitted to trade in official markets
Zheng He was given a fleet of 300 ships (27 000 men) to sail to “the countries beyond the horizon” to give gifts and collect tribute Turning Inward
in 1434 a new emperor was persuaded to stop expansive expeditions
rulers forbade travel, and contact with foreigners
scholars outlooks dominated Chinese thought
the government became too rigid to adapt
peasant rebellions ended the Ming dynasty in 1644
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