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Biology Q4 Technology Project

By Daniel Mouradian & Nerses Kazarian

Daniel Mouradian

on 30 May 2014

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Transcript of Biology Q4 Technology Project

Biology Q4 Technology Project
C2 Currently there is no cure for HIV/AIDS. But fortunately, scientists have come up with drug cocktails, or combinations of many drugs, that are able to strengthen the immune system that can keep HIV from developing into AIDS.
HIV Continued...
A1 The common name for the disease caused by HIV is AIDS.
A2 The common name of the pathogen that causes AIDS is HIV. The scientific name for HIV is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
A3 Some symptoms of HIV may include: fever, swollen glands, sore throat, rash, fatigue, muscle pain, and headache.
B1 People of all ages are at risk of acquiring HIV. Most people who acquire the virus are between the age of 20 and 24. According to the CDC, the ethnicity that is effected the most is Africans. HIV/AIDS is most common in Africa, India, and the United States. HIV can be passed down to offspring, through a mother’s breast milk.
HIV is a current threat that affects millions of people all around the world.
According to the CDC, about 50,000 people are affected by HIV each year.
C1 Traditional drugs can only help once you have been invaded by the pathogen. Vaccines are a better choice because they prevent pathogens from progressing into an illness before you get sick. There is no vaccine for HIV.
Unfortunately, these drugs have many side effects. A few side effects include anemia, nausea, stomach pain, and fatigue.
C4 Unfortunately, these drugs are extremely expensive, and can be a financial burden to many families all around the world.
D1 HIV is transmitted through the exchange of bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, and vaginal fluids. HIV can enter the body through any opening. HIV cannot exit the body, because if the virus is exposed to air, the virus will die in a matter of seconds. HIV must replicate by taking over normal functions of healthy, normal cells.
D2 T- Cells are targeted by HIV.

D3 HIV proliferates within the human host by infecting healthy cells and taking over their normal function, and controlling them to make more viruses. This is how HIV reproduces within the body.

D4 If your body acquires HIV, immune system cells, such as T Cells will begin to not function properly. This means that a simple flu can easily kill the recipient of the virus.
D5 HIV-1 Tat is a protein that is connected with HIV. This protein is one of the first proteins that are expressed when someone is infected with the virus. HIV-1 Tat is a protein that binds RNA, and recognizes a specific sequence. It contributes to pathological symptoms, as well as a critical role in virus replication.
A1 The common name for Malaria is Malaria.
A2 The common name of the pathogen that causes this disease is called Plasmodium. The scientific name for Plasmodium is Plasmodium Flaciparum.
A3 A few symptons of Malaria include: Fever, Sweating, Shaking Chills, and Headaches.
B1 Anyone can get malaria, but geographic region does play an important role, because malaria is most common in both South America and Africa. Malaria can not be transmitted from person to person.
B2 Unfortunately, Malaria is still a current issue in certain parts of the world.
B3 According to WHO, 300-500 Million people are affected by Malaria each year.
C1 Traditional drugs are only useful if you already have been infected with the disease. Vaccines are more beneficial, because they prevent you from becoming sick and easily fight off pathogens. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for malaria as of today.
C2 Antimalarial medication can help prevent Malaria. Unfortunately, the medication is not guaranteed to work 100% of the time.
c3 There are a few side effects that may come with antimalarial medication. These include: nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and dizziness.
C4 Antimalarial medication is not guaranteed to work all the time, and the drug must be used with mosquito repellant.
D1 People get malaria by being bitten by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. These mosquitoes inject malaria parasites called sporozoites into the victim's blood. The parasites thrive of nutrients in the body.
Malaria Continued...
D2 Red blood cells and liver cells are targeted by the pathogen.
D3 The parasites travel through the bloodstream to the liver. There they reproduce and release another set of sporozoites.
D4 During a malaria infection, immune responses against parasite antigens are reduced.
D5 Malaria affects Protein C Binding.
A1 The common name for tuberculosis is tuberculosis or tb.
A2 The common name for the pathogen that causes tuberculosis is called tb bacteria. The scientific name is mycobacterium tuberculosis.
A3 A few symptoms of tuberculosis include, weight loss, cough, and fatigue.
B3 Each year, nearly nine million people become infected with Tuberculosis.
B1 Tuberculosis usually affects people of very young or old age. Most tuberculosis cases are found in Asia, India, Africa, and Greenland.
B2 Unfortunately, Tuberculosis is a current threat.
C1 A person infected with Tuberculosis can be treated with either traditional drugs or can receive a vaccine. Traditional drugs can help kill the bacteria that causes Tuberculosis. Vaccines, however, can prevent this disease from ever occurring.
C2 Currently, both vaccines and drugs are used to fight Tuberculosis.
c3 A few side effects of Tuberculosis medication include: nausea, vomiting, rash, and red urine
C4 Drug Resistant Tuberculosis medication can be extremely expensive.
Tuberculosis Continued...
D1 Tuberculosis is an airborne disease. It can be transmitted from person to person when the infected person coughs or sneezes near someone who isn't infected. When Tuberculosis bacilli are inhaled, they move from the nose and mouth to the bronchi and alveoli of the lung.
D2 Tuberculosis affects epithelial cells inside the lungs.
D3 Mycobacterium Tuberculosis can reproduce with in the phagocytic cells of humans including dendritic cells and marophages.
D5 One protein that is connected with Tuberculosis is Parkin. This protein is also related to Parkinson's Disease,
D4 Tuberculosis affects white blood cells, because Tb stops the cell from breaking it down. This infects white blood cells with tuberculosis.
Three Similarities and Differences
Bacteria and Parasite Infections can be treated with antibiotics, but viruses can not.
Viruses are non living, but parasites and bacteria are living microorganisms.
Bacteria and parasites have a fast rate of reproduction in the human body, while viruses reproduce much slower.
Bacteria, parasites, and viruses are pathogens that take over host cell functions.
Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites can cause a wide variety of illnesses, such as tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS.
Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites all reproduce inside the human body,
Daniel Mouradian & Nerses Kazarian
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