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Groups that Influence Science
Transcript of Groups that Influence Science
Friends of the earth
Greenpeace is a organization that defends the environment and the planet from anything that could harm it, they are an non-profitable organization that was founded in 1969. This group influences science because they defend things that they feel need to be preserved and kept e.g Rainforests and oceans. They also influence science when they believe science is doing something morally wrong e.g testing nuclear powered weapons an Animal testing.
There are many tools Green peace uses to influence science such as;
Campaigns can catch the attention of the government, Protests & Media can catch the attention of the public, using these tools they can influence the decision makers which in the latter will influence science.
Amnesty international is an organization that focuses on improving human rights it was founded in 1961 London."They take up human rights issues through letter writing online and offline campaigning, demonstrations, vigils and direct lobbying of those with power and influence." With these tools and methods they use to influence the government and public who eventually make the decision of whether to act on any human right issues, For example last year they began campaigning over an incident in which there was a gas leak in Bhopal which killed 7000 people to 10,000 people in 1984 which has political issue tied into it. See article below:
Amnesty International used Science to protect human rights. They used geospatial technology to intervene in a scientific study and monitoring of human rights. "They helped individuals with keeping their rights by using scientific technology to carry out a scientific study. In 2009, Amnesty located and helped a Burmese prisoner who had her rights abused."
CND is an acronym for Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Their motives are quite self explanatory through their name; they are an organization that campaigns for nuclear disarmament, they were formed in the UK. Their campaigns are non-violent, they use their being campaigns to influence science by campaigning to the public and those in government and others who can make a significant change. Their campaigns consist of; protesting, hosting events, and meetings. Below is a protest showing one of the organization tactics in influencing science.
This organization also known as FOE are an organization that defend the earth from things that can eventually have a large impact on it."They believe that the Earth is our home so it doesn't make sense wrecking it".
FOE use campaigns and workshops also the media to portray their opinion of what could be happening at that specific time."They also use science to support their ideas". See below a article the topic of which they are campaigning for is to remove GM food from supermarkets.
https://www.amnesty.org/en/who-we-are/about-amnesty-international (Amnesty International Text)
http://www.amnesty.org.uk/news_details.asp?NewsID=19920 (Amnesty International Text)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amnesty_International (Amnesty International Text)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campaign_for_Nuclear_Disarmament (Nuclear disarmament test)
http://www.cnduk.org/get-involved/take-action/ecampaign-newsletter (CND Text)
http://homersykes.photoshelter.com/image/I0000rGAeuxXrJyw (CND Image)
http://www.foe.co.uk/what_we_do/about_us/friends_earth_background.html (FOE Text)
http://www.foe.co.uk/what_we_do/about_us/friends_earth_works.html (FOE Text)
http://www.foe.co.uk/campaigns/biodiversity/press_for_change/asda_rolls_back_on_gm_23592.html (FOE Link)
http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/science-for-human-rights/individuals-at-risk(Amnesty International Text+ Image)
Funding in science
There are different types of funding regarding science/scienctific research, two examples of this are; public & private sources, these sources provide funds for scientific research to progress allowing scientists to afford equipment that they find necessary.
Public funding could come from a source such as the government, the government can influence what science does and does'nt. For example the goverment can offer science funding on the terms of improving military strength through technology or medicine etc. This would be a benificial offer for the government because their miltary strength would increase; benifits of science could be new and better quality equipment( funds allowing them to achieve things that they could not before). This could influence the direction and outcome of scientific research for example if this scientific research was in the process of being completed then the government offer funding they can complete the scientific research with better quality and possibly more efficiently. Or another example could be that scientists are conducting research on two topics, the government then offers them an insentive(funding) causing them to re-prioritise the topics to the government's choice because of the assistance rearding funding that they are recieving.
Some private sources fund science to support their motives . For example the Koch family who supposedly funded some scientific research concerning climate change. They have been accused of attempting to prove that the global warming theory is wrong. This would be benificial for them as they are a multi-billion company who gain revenue from natural resources e.g natural gas and coal. So this means that if the theory is proved people would not be as cautious about the enviroment when using natural resources because there would be less negative factors; ultimately this would increase their revenue. This is an example of a private source who fund science heavily influencing what science/scientists do, most likely for personal gain.