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Transcript of Timeline
Timeline of Art Historical Movements, Socio-Political Events, and the Development of Film from 1850-1950
Realism, which emerged from the French Revolution of 1848, sought to portray an objective and honest view of the world. Significant artists include: Honoré Damier, Gustave Courbet, Rosa Bonheur, and Jean-François Millet.
The Post-Impressionism emegred out of the Impressionist movement, however, it was considered it's own, cohesive movement. Artists during this period focused on depicting natural phenomenon and on expressing emotions. Notable artists from this period include Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, and Georges Seurat.
Arts & Crafts Movement
The Arts & Crafts movement emerged during the Victorian period of England. Concerned with the prevalence of the machine and increasing technology, artists sought to create a revival of handcraftsmanship. Some important artists from this period are Dirk van Erp, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Marie Zimmerman.
Fauvism was an avant-garde art movement characterized by artists' spontaneity as well as their use of vibrant colors and obvious brushstrokes. Important artists include Henri Matisse and André Derain.
German Expressionism emerged in the early 1900s and focued on protraying an emotional view of the world. Important artists from this period include Edwin Kirchner, Wassily Kandinsky, and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff.
Abstract Art, which is a blanket-term for a number of different movements that emerged in the ealr 1900s that desired to move away from the focus on representational art. Abstract art has continued to be a very prolific style of art-making. There were two different types of abstraction 'pure abstraction,' where the objects of the artwork are the subject and 'semi abstraction,' which still contains some represenational imagery. Important abstract artists include Pablo Picasso, Mondrian, and Gorges Braque.
Cubism is a style of abstract art that emerged in the early 1900s that break with the traditional form of perspective and show a subject from a number of different views through the use of shapes. Two types of cubism were formed: analytical cubism and synthetic cubism. A few significant artists from this movement are Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Juan Gris.
1852: Napoleon becomes emperor of France
1861: American Civil War
1870: Franco-Prussian War
1898: Spanish-American War
1890: Boxer Rebellion in China
1910: Union of South Africa
1914: Outbreak of
World War I
1918: Armistice ends WWI
1915: Armenian Genocide
1936: Civil War in Spain
1939: Outbreak of WWII
1945: Atomic bomb dropped
1945: Formation of the
1948: Official structured policy of apartheid
1949: NATO formed
1877: Invention of the Praxinoscope
1892: First public exhibition of
1894: Lumière Brothers invent the cinématogrophe
The Great Train Robbery
1905: Creation of the first Nickelodeon
1906: World's first feature-length film
1908: First commercially-produced film in natural color
1910: Film companies move to Hollywood
1910: Invention of the Chronophone
1913: Creation of Movie Palaces
1913: Premiere of D.W. Griffith's
Birth of a Nation
1917: Invention of the
1922: Robert Flaherty's Nanook of the North premieres
1924: Fleischer brothers make first animated film
1927: Premiere of
The Jazz Singer
1930s: "Golden Age" of Hollywood
1930: Introduction of the Motion Picture Code in the United States
1947: Peak of the "Golden Age" of Films in th United States
the U.S. this
Impressionism is characterized by the techniques employed by artists of this movement such as short, broken brushstrokes, unblended colors, and an emphasis on light. Important artists from this period include Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Edgar Degas, and Édouard Manet.
The Dance Class
Wheatfield with Cypresses
Vincent van Gogh
Nasturtiums with the Painting "Dance"
Futurism emerged from Italy in the early 1900s as a movement away from the the past of the renaissance and towards the possibility of the future as well as the importance of the machine. Significant artists from this period include Umberto Boccioni, Giacomo Balla, and Filippo Tomasso Marinetti.
Dynamism of a Soccer Player
A movement that emerged from Holland, De Stijl focused on the use of pure geometric forms and primary colors that were the underlying forms of existence. The most prolific artist of this movement was Piet Mondrian.
Composition with Red, Yellow, and Blue
Art Deco is a pe of decorative art that emerged from France in the mid 10th century. It is largely connected to the pieces of decorative art shown at the Exposition Internationale Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris in 1925. Artists of this movement sought to re-establish the decorative arts movement. Important artistis include Paul Poiret, Jacques Le Chevallier, and Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann.
Jacques Le Chevallier
The Bauhaus was a German movement founded by Walter Gropius and emphasized the idea of "gesamtkuntswerk" or "total work of art" and sought to create objects that worked with the new way of living and advances of the machine. Notable artists include Walter Gropius, Mies van der Rohe, and Marcel Breuer.
Mies van der Rohe
The praxinoscope was an early animation device made of a strip of pictures placed on the interior of a spinning cylinder that created the illusion of movement.
The cinématogrphae was an early camera projector that was operated by a hand crank.
1902: George Méliès creates Voyage a La Lune
George Méliés creates Voyage a la Lune, which is significant for its use of early trick cinematography and special effects, transitions, as well as hand-painted coloring on the film slides.
Directed by Edwin S. Porter, The Great Train Robbery, a short, silent film credited with being the first Western film and significant for its use of cross cutting and hand-coloring.
Nickelodeons were early movie theaters. They were given their name based on the fact that tickets cost only a nickel.
The Story of Kelly Gang
, a film about infamous outlaw Ned Kelly is credited with being the first feature-length narrative film ever made.
A Visit to the Seaside
, directed by George Albert Smith from the UK, was an 8-minute short and the first commercially-produced film in natural color using the Kinemacolor process.
Films switch from being shown in Nickelodeons to projectors in large movie palaces, much like movie theaters today.
The Motion Picture Code (Hays Code) set moral guidelines for what was acceptable and unacceptable in films and was the first censorship law passed regarding films in the United States.
The Jazz Singer
, staring Al Jolson, was the first advertised "talkie" film that featured synchonized sound and songs.
Allowed for a sound-on-disc display rather than live music from an orchestra that had previously been used when showing motion pictures
Nanook of the North
was the first feature-length documentary created. It followed the life of Nanook and his family who were eskimos living in Alaska
The new and clear style of Hollywood cinema and the "Golden Age" of Hollywood emerges
The American Civil War between the Northern Union and the Southern Confederates break out as Southern states try to secede. The North ultimately wins, and, during the war in 1865, slavery is abolished in the United States.
The French monarchy is overthrown and Napoleon Bonaprte takes power
The Spanish-American War broke out in 1898 as a result of the U.S. intervention in Cuban War of Independence in which Cuba was fighting to gain independence from the Spanish
The Boxer Rebellion was anti-imperlialist rebellion in which pro-nationalists sought to remove all foreigners and foreign spheres of influencefrom China
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Bosnia was assassinated. His assassination led to a breaking point for tensions in Easter Europe and as countries began to enter the war, the complicated web of alliances among countries led to the involvement of various countries in the war and World War I began.
The union of South Africa was formed upon the unification of four separate British states: Cape Colony, Natal Colony, Transvaal Colony, and Orange River Colony
On August 6, 1945 the United States dropped the first atomic bomb on the Japanese town of Hiroshima. Three days later on August 9, a second atomicbomb was dropped on the town of Nagasaki.
The Pre-Raphaelite movement emerged in 1848 as a result of young artists rebelling against the established Royal Academy of Art. Art from this period is characterized by its focus on detail, use of bright colors, and often times its moral or religious subject matter. Notable artists from this period include Dante Rossetti, Sir John Everrett Millais, and William Morris.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed in 1949 by the United States, France, Denmark, Canada, Belgium, Iceland, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, Portugal, and the United Kingdom as collective protection against the Soviet Union.
Apartheid, the legal system of racial separation throughout South Africa enforced by the National Party, the white-ruling minority, officially became legislation in 1948 and was in existence until 1994.
Invented by Max Fleischer, the rotoscope was used to create early forms of animation by drawing silhouettes on the same background that created the appearance of movement
A type of early motion picture cameria devleoped in Thomas Edison's lab that created stop-and-go films
Fleischer Studios was formed in New York in 1921 and mainly produced animated shorts. Out of Fleishcer Studios came well-known cartoons Betty Boop, Popeye the Sailor and Superman.
The love-story and
starring Humphrey Bogart and
Ingrid Bergman is made
The United Nations was formed as an intergovernmental organization that sought to promote peace and co-operation across nations throughout the world
The Russian Revolution was comprised of a number of uprisings that sought to overthrow the Tsarist regime that ruled the nation. It was eventually overthrown and Russia became the Soviet Union.
After over three years of fighting, an armstice was signed on November 11, 1918 and World War I came to an end
The Armenian genocide (Armenian Holocaust) was the mass killing of Armenian peoples by the Ottoman Empire. It is estimated that about 800,000 to 1.5 million Armenians were killed by the time the genocide came to an end in 1917.
The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from 1936-1939, was a conflict fought between two groups: the Republicans who sided with The Second Spanish Republic and the Nationalists. The Nationalists won the war and the head of the Nationalsit party, General Francisco Franco ruled Spain until his death in 1975.
World War II arose from totalitarian regimes emerging throughout many parts of Europe. In 1939 Hilter's militaristic regime invaded Poland and the first wave of fighting began. During this time Adolf Hitler, the dictator in power in Germany established concentration camps and sough to exterminate the Jewish population of the Germany and the other lands he conquered. In 1945 the war came to an end and the allie countries were victorious over the totalitarian regimes throughout Europe.
The Franco-Prussian war emerged due to the Prussian desire to extend the unification of Germany. The French declared war on the Germans and only 9 months later the French conceded defeat
Dadaism was a movment that emerged out of Zürich. Dadaism went against the accepted notions of art of the past and sought to create art that was both alive and irrational. Important artists include Max Ernst, Marchel Duchamp, and Raoul Hausmann.
Tatlin at Home
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Surrealism, which began as a literary movement, emerged from a desire of young artists to unleash the imagination of their subconscious and utlized Freud's method of free association. Important artists of this period include Man Ray, Lee Miller, and Leonora Carrington.
Inn of the Dawn Horse (Self-Portrait)
Living Room from the Little House, Myzata, Minnesota
Frank Lloyd Wright
Art Nouveau is a movement that focused on the nature and the natural form. Concerned with growing mechanization of the world around them, Art Nouveau Artists created forms that could only come from the human and nature and not the machine. Significant artists from this movement include ntoni Gaudí in Spain and Hector Guimard in France.
Abstract Expressionism emerged in the 1940s in New York as a movement that sought to display the psyche of the artist through unconventional tachniques and non-representational artwork. Important Abstract Expressionist are Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, and Franz Kline.
Number 28, 1950
Sir John Everrett Millais
D.W. Griffith creates his controversial Civil War Epic
1917: Russian Revolution