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Cer. I Recycling Clay
Transcript of Cer. I Recycling Clay
Where does clay
What is Clay?
Clay is naturally occurring aluminum silicate composed primarily of fine-grained minerals and exhibits plasticity (the ability of the clay to take & hold the form that the potter gives it) when mixed with water in certain proportions. When dry, it becomes firm and when fired in a kiln, permanent physical and chemical changes occur, which convert it into a ceramic material.
Approximately 80% of the earth's land surface contains clay. There is a good chance that there are local earthenware clays near where you live.
Some of the best places to look for clay include:
- river banks
- stream beds
- road cuts
- naturally exposed earth
such as in canyons or
- construction sites
Where can you find clay?
Nowhere in the state did clay mining reach the scale it did in
, which for a number of years, was the
brick and tile capital of the United States
. Clay was first mined in Hancock County about 1830.
Hancock County clay is of
, which means it is usually associated with coal and shale.
Dozens of companies were manufacturing
bricks, sewer pipe, pottery, and specialty items such as chimney tops, terra cotta vases, and furnace linings from local clay and shale.
We need everyone's help to be conscious
of how and why we recycle our clay.
The process of extracting clay, which was mined in strip mines as well as in underground mines, was
modernized from 1895 to 1915
. Under the new mining methods,
clay was hauled from the mines by locomotives to giant crushers and moved on conveyors to local manufacturing plants or to barges on the Ohio River or, later, to the railroad for transporting to other parts of the country where it was in great demand.
How and where can you collect your own clay?
Why is it important to
How to use the Pug Mill
As you work, you are likely to have a number of scrap pieces of clay accumulate.
This is true of hand building, and even truer of throwing. In hand building, if the scraps haven’t dried out too much you can re-work them without having to do much more than compress them back together and work the air out. If you are throwing, however, your scraps are likely to be quite wet and will include slurry.
As long as your clay has not been fired or had contaminants introduced to it you
can reuse your clay scraps and clay slurry to make more clay.
Reclaiming is low tech and you do not need anything more than a bucket and water.
we recycle all of our unfired clay to use again for future projects.
It saves you money.
School fees for the class
t saves our sinks.
If we rinsed all
f our daily clay down the sinks they would very quickly clog and we could no longer have a clay studio.
Don’t throw these
you can recycle
them back into
usable clay again.
What are the stages
of clay from
wettest to the driest?
CLAY DILUTED WITH WATER TO THE CONSISTENCY OF CREAM, USED FOR JOINING PIECES OF CLAY.
THE QUALITY OF CLAY WHICH ALLOWS IT TO BE MANIPULATED, SHAPED, and MOLDED WITHOUT CRACKING OR CRUMBLING; WORKABILTY.
Leather Hard -
VISABLY DAMP BUT STIFF ENOUGH TO BE ABLE TO BE HANDLED WITHOUT DEFORMATION. CARVING AND ADDING HANDLES OR OTHER ADDITIONS CAN BE APPLIED AT THIS POINT.
Bone Dry (Greenware) -
UNFIRED CLAY THAT IS FREE OF WATER, ONLY CONTAINS THE AMOUNT OF MOISTURE IN ATMOSPHERE.
Bisque Firing -
FIRST FIRING AT LOWER TEMPERATURE TO MAKE POTS LESS FRAGILE. Usually Cone 010 to 05.
Glaze Firing -
TYPICALLY THE SECOND FIRING OF A PIECE OF POTTERY WHICH HAS BEEN COATED WITH GLASS FORMING MATERIALS.
Cone 06 to Cone 6
A thriving pottery industry began manufacturing dishes and tableware today. They pulled clay out of the mine in carts over wooden stringers and dumped it into piles. When used for bricks, the clay was pushed through rollers several times to grind it to sufficient fineness, mixed with water in the ‘‘wet pan’’ and poured into brick molds to dry in the sun before being fired by wood in beehive kilns.
Clay was originally mined by hand.
Quiz over info next class