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And The Mountains Echoed
Transcript of And The Mountains Echoed
And The Mountains Echoed
By KHALED HOSSEINI
Abdullah & Pari
Nabi & Mr. Wahditi
Khaled Hosseini was born in Kabul Afghanistan, May 5th 1965.
At the age of 11 his family moved to france and 4 years later were granted political asylum in 1980 and moved to San Jose California. The oldest of 5 children Khaled arrived in San Jose not knowing a word of English, he felt very alienated , his father was a diplomat and his mother a persian language teacher, his ethnicity is mixed both his parents are from Herat but he states that there is a Pashtoon part an Tajik part in him from his line of ancestry, he was privlaged back in afghanistan as he recalls his uprbinging in the richer areas of kabul. His novels are all inspired by his own experiences and the experinces of people he has met.
Khaled had written 3 novels,
The Kite Runner in 2003 the inspiration of writting a book on the Hazaras came from the memory of one of the workers in his home , Hossein khan whom he taught to read and write while living in iran.
A Thousand Splendid Suns in may 2007
And the Mountains Echoed May of 2013.
The Kite Runner
A Thousand Splendid Suns
And the Mountains Echoed
The novel took place in mainly Kabul , Paris and the Greek Island of Tinos, The novel shows us how not only parents but brothers sisters cousins and caretakers nurture, betray honor and sacrifice, for one another and how ones that we feel are close can shock and surprise us with there actions.
The Character of Pari and her mother Nila reside in Paris and there story develops through the sacrifices that have been made by Pari's brother Abdullah and father in Kabul before the war and her struggle to search for her father and her real background not the one that Nila had produced from thin air for her .
Tinos was the place that Markos came from where he met Thalia and grew up with her until he decided he decide to travel around and work as a veteran in Kabul, in which he resides with Nabi in the home of Mr,Wahdati, who we find out is a complex character,
All of the stories portrayed by the different characters, all refer back to Kabul, Afghanistan , our main characters that reside in Kabul, are Mr.Wahdati and Nabi, his caretaker of since 1947.
Abdullah the older brother of Pari, Timur and Idris, all have found sanctuary in San Fransisco. Abdullah had opened a restaurant, Abes Kabob House and had gone to name his daughter after the beloved sister who was his everything, he had lost to Nila and Mr. Suliman Wahditi, for some money his father had sold her and for her betterment, overall.
A, Or B, Its Your Choice
The main conflict that Mr. Wahditi faced in Kabul was the fact that he was homosexual and he could not be allowed to express it as in a mainly Muslim dominated country admitting to being so, was consider Haram and those who were homosexual were punished severely. To avoid such punishment he had gotten married to Nila, a stunning but fairly promiscuous daughter of a Mullah, a fairly religious man who was defamed by her actions. suliman was still the same man as he was before and he did not change in anyways he was still the quiet and solitary man he was before.
Nabi faced many conflicts in his life with his two sisters Parvana and Masooma, He had fled from being a caretaker for his sister Masooma who was cripple, leaving Parvana to take care of her twin sister, he still provided for the two bringing them money to Shadbagh on a monthly basis, he lost his sister Masooma without being able to actually take care of her and that remorse has followed him ever since.
The relationship between Pari and her brother Abdullah is unlike any other, for the two siblings they are everything for each other, Abdullah a father figure to Pari and Pari is everything to Abdullah. They share a story of separation and pain like the story of the Qais that the father shared in the beginning of the story.
The Jin had taken her away forever she would never see her brother again...
Abdullah had lost his sister to Nila Wahdati, she was gone Abdullah would never forget his sister, and would be stuck with that void in his heart of never knowing what had happened to her and how she is doing. Pari on the other hand had the power to forget everything about him, at her young age she never really had any memory of him after a while, but she lead the life of luxury and happiness with a loving mother and a amazingly artistic father.
Pari's change had begun as soon as she had started to forget about her brother and real father, back in Shadbagh, now in Kabul she became Mrs. Wahditi's daughter, when her father Mr. Wahditi suffers a stroke, Mrs Wahditi leaves with Pari to Paris, and raises the little Pari there, Nila commits suicide in 1974 and leaves Pari alone in the world, she starts feeling a pang in her heart that something is missing and sets to find the truth of her identity and where she originally comes from. she had the power of memory loss in the beginning but now that she has learns of her past, she has the memory of her brother while he has forgotten due to his Alzheimer's.
Abdullahs feelings toward his sister are greatly affected after the war as he had been granted an asylum in America, after he had been in the refugee camps in pakistan while at the refugee camp he had gotten married and had a child with his wife, that he in turn named after his first love his baby sister Pari, Abdullah had told so many stories of Pari (s) to Pari his daughter.He never forgot his sister but as he aged he got Alzheimer's he had forgotten about his long lost sister. And was dependent on his daughter for care, during that time Pari had contacted him but got through to his daughter aand they were finally reunited after many years , he could no longer remember her. she had found out about him after she had found the truth through her uncle Nabi
Nabi was a loyal and honest servant to Mr Wahditi since 1947. He cooked cleaned and was a chauffeur for Mr Wahditi. He was the servant and viewed the relationship as solely that. On the other hand Mr. Wahdidti the quiet calm and solitary person as he wasn't not as he seemed, he had hired Nabi for reasons other than that of a required cook. Suileman Wahdidt had fallen in love with Nabi, and needed him in his life.
Both Nabi and Mr wahdati face dynamic changes in there lives at the point Mr Wahdati professes his love towards Nabi, Nabi feels an awkward aura and decides to leave Mr. Wahdati but cannot bring himself to do so as he has grown fond of Mr. Wahdati, in the sense of companionship, he chooses not to run away like he did with his sister and enjoy his time with Mr. Wahdati and fulfill the last wishes of as not to have any regrets with Mr. Wahdati as he does with his sister and his neice Pari, and her real family, he decides to commit to Mr. Wahdati every need and takes care of him till the day he dies. And decides to reveal the truth about Pari and her real brother as well.
"he was wholly dependent on me'. I run once before from someone who needed me and the remorse .., i will take to my grave" Nabi Page 120
This a novel filled with many characters that will all manage to get you attached and not want to put this book of many stories down as all these stories link to one another, making the world much smaller than it seems, they show us how family members love wound betray honor and sacrifice for one another.
Amra Ademovic and Roshi
-Parvana is the stepmother of the Pari and Abdullah, she has lived her life in Shadbagh behind her sister whose beauty outshone her by a mile , she lives a life of regret following the accident of her sister who had become paralyzed after a pang of jealousy had caused her to push her sister off a tree branch.
she could not have children of her own because she was sterilized undergoing treatment for an illness which led her to buying Pari off of her father Saboor. She was a renowned poet for her sexually explicit poems, after her husband had a stroke she left to Paris with Pari, later committing suicide because she was discontent with life. she was portrayed so that she was not liked and Hosseini was succeeded in doing so.
She was a Bosnian nurse who worked as an aid worker after the fall of the taliban she cares for and later adopts a child named Roshi. Roshi was a orphan who's entire family was killed by her uncle and she was had a terrible head injury that needed immediate care and surgery which was unaffordable for her.
Idris and Timur are cousins, they were both expats, who had come back to reclaim their old home in front of the Wahdati residence, Idris is the smart med student while Timur was childish but successful. Idris had gotten attached to Roshi and had promised to help her but failed in doing so , on the other hand Timur the childish one had managed to give the help Roshi needed , Idris is a man who talks, but Timur is one who talks and boasts and manages to do so.
Idris and Timur
Markos Varvaris and Thalia
Thalia met Markos back in Tinos where he originally was disgusted by her facial disfigurement due to being attacked by her step fathers dog, they soon started to get along very well and soon enough Thalias mother had abandoned her daughter to fulfill her own dream of becoming a star, Thalia had motivated Markos to become a surgeon and work in different countries around the world, which gave him the opportunity to go to Afghanistan , Thalia has refused Markos offer to perform surgery on her as she believes it has shaped the way she grew up and her her identity
The theme is refracted through a pairs of siblings, such as Abdullah and Pari, Timur and Idris , Thalia and Markos, and Parvana and Masooma , and the father and uncle of Roshi, these all tell of the love they have, the wounds and betrayal they have felt or committed and the sacrifices they made for one another, the themes of dependance, guilt, family and memories are very evident in this story along with love.
Are memories a blessing? keeping safe all your happy times, or a curse causing you to relieve the pain of the past?
Can the guilt of a situation you had in the past cause you to treat a present reoccurring situation, differently than you have the first time around ?
If you were the caretaker of someone that was wholly dependent on you, a loved one ,and they told you to leave them for death, what would you do? leave them for death or care for them till death ?
A major symbols that stood out from this novel would be that of the the title "And The Mountains Echoed" as we read into the novel we notice things being repeated and reoccurring themes of siblings love and sacrifices, and betrayal. That is what an echo is, a repeated sound, but in this case it is actions repeated by certain siblings over the chapters of the novel.
The novel begins with a folklore, about a giant Div, who stole children, for the child's betterment. This story was told a day before Abdullah and Pari go on a long journey with there father to Kabul so that the father can sell his daughter Pari her brother is devastated by this , to childless couple, upon his brother in laws request the Wahdatis, Nabi did this in order to gain a favor from Nila whom he is infatuated by, Nabi is the brother of Parvana the children's step mother, Parvana was the unfavored one with her sister causing her to become jealous especially when it came to Saboor , whom she liked immensely and she had pushed her sister off a tree, because of this jealousy, and had to take care of her paraplegic sister for a while until she had asked her to assist her in committing suicide. In the next couple of years Abdullah leaves Afghanistan , Mr. Wahdati suffers a stroke , Nila runs off to Paris with Pari, Nabi becomes the sole caregiver for MR Wahdati, he finds sketches of himself, and is a bit perturbed by the find and seeks a new care giver for Mr wahdati but chooses against leaving and stays to continue caring for Mr. Wahdati until his death. The neighbor hood kids return to reclaim their land after 20 years, Timur and Idris, ,Idris bonds with Roshi whose entire family was killed by her uncle who was feuding over land with her father, and promises to get her help upon returning to America where she is soon just a forgotten tale, she still got the help she needed from Timur who paid for her surgery and is adopted by Amra, Idris runs into her at a book signing for her novel on her horrific experiences ,
Nila now living in Paris is unhappy and after detailed interview she commits suicide in 1974,
Pari plans a trip to Afghanistan to unravel the mystery of who her biological parents were , but postpones plans because she has married and is pregnant, 3 kids later she is widowed at age 48, she receive a postmortem letter in 2010 from Nabi who reveals the entire adoption and her real families names. In the last few chapters we meet Adel a boy who learn his father is a war criminal and is living on land that previously belonged to Saboor and his family ,and Markos a greek aid worker who is friend with Thalia whom we learn a bit about as well.
The last chapter is narrated by Abdullahs daughter Pari, Abdullah and his sister Pari are united but due to his Alzheimer's he is unable to remember her.
The mood is fairly depressing are we are loosing loved ones and, they are in the midst of a war, which also explains why we have a fairly serious and sad tone .
In the exposition, he portrays through the story of the Jin and the farmers son Qais the struggles one would go through save a loved one and the many other betrayals and conflicts that siblings have in day to day life.