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Transcript of Psychology
An Exploration of Founding Theorists
Maslow developed the
Hierarchy of Needs model as a means of explaining human motivation.
He believed humans had innate needs which needed to be satisfied and could be ordered according to a hierarchy. He theorised that most people move through the hierarchy from bottom to top. Once a need is satisfied it no longer serves as a motivator.
Maslow, born 1908 in Brooklyn was the eldest of seven children. His parents were Russian Jewish immigrants.
After briefly studying Law, Maslow developed an interest in Psychology and earned his PhD in 1934.
He taught in various universities and continued to study psychology until his death at age 62.
He is best remembered for his work in understanding human motivation contributing to the field of Humanistic Psychology (Boeree, 2006).
Influence on Psychology as a Science
Maslow was a major contributor to the area of Humanistic Psychology. His theories on a more wholisitc approach to understanding the human motivation were in contrast to other areas of psychology such as Freud's study in psychoanalysis and Piaget's behaviorism. Maslow believed that instinctively humans were good and deviations were caused by social and mental problems. This is a theory that is still debated in the psychology world today (Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2001).
Piaget is well-known for being the first
psychologist to create a methodical
study of cognitive development,
including theories of cognitive development
in children. Piaget’s theory differs from others
because it focuses on children as opposed
to all learners, and by concentrating on
development rather than learning (McLeod, 2009).
Jean Piaget was born in 1896 and died in 1980. He studied natural sciences at the University of Neuchatel where he obtained a Ph.D. Piaget spent a year working at the Ecole de la rue de la Grange-aux-Bellas where he standardized Burt’s test of intelligence and performed his first experimental study of
the growing mind (Cherry, 2005).
Psychology as a Science
Piaget’s work had an intense influence on psychology, particularly for our understanding of children’s intellectual development. It certainly has paved the way for things like ‘play based’ learning that is used in kindergartens and early learning centres.
Albert Einstein once said that the
discovery was “so simple that only a
genius could have thought
of it.” (Cherry, 2005)
Skinner was recognised for his innovative philosophy of science called radical behaviourism. He defined this study by the influence of environmental functions and its consequences. He was termed the founder of modern scientific experimentation and invented the theory of Operant Conditioning which was based on reinforcement. Skinner also invented the operant conditioning chamber, controversially, referred to as the Skinner box (Henderson, McWey & Piercy, 2006) .
Fundamentals of Theory
Freud worked and gained respect as a physician. He became fascinated with the emotional disorder known as hysteria. Freud pioneered new techniques for understanding human behaviour, and his efforts resulted in the most comprehensive theory of personality and psychotherapy ever developed. (Thornton, 2010)
Born Sigismund Freud: 6 May 1856 - 23 September 1939 was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis. He was a physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and influential thinker of the early twentieth century. He qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881 then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy. He became a professor in 1902. (wikipedia. Sigmund Freud, 2013)
Influence on Psychology as a Science
Psychoanalysis remains influential within psychotherapy, within some area of psychiatry, and across the humanities. His work supported the belief that not all mental illnesses have physiological causes and he also offered evidence that cultural differences have an impact on psychology and behaviour. His work and writings contributed to our understanding of personality, clinical psychology, human development and abnormal psychology.
Burrhus Frederic known as; "B. F." Skinner was born in America in March 1904 and died in August 1990. Skinner originally set out to become an author and succeeded in writing 21 books in total. However Skinner was also titled as a psychologist, behaviourist and inventor. He was named the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. Skinners theories and inventions were often controversial and were frequently scrutinised due to his belief that humans have no free will and are ruled purely by environmental reinforcements (Cherry, n.d).
Influence of Psychology
as a Science
Skinners contributions, are still relevant (also controversial), and helpful in the construction of a better world. In the nineteen fifties and sixties, Skinner’s behavioural methods were used in asylums with psychotic and schizophrenic patients to teach them to dress and feed themselves via his operant conditioning principles of reinforcement. Even today, the treatment of phobias and panic disorders are highly influenced by Skinners operant collection and clinicians regularly use his behavioural techniques as treatments (BF Skinner Foundation, 2010).
Psychology was originally founded upon pure philosophy of human behaviour. There was little to no evidence or science to substantiate these analyses of human behaviour. Current theories and scientific research are ultimately based around original ideas created by certain relevant and historic figures. Below are summaries of selected Psychology Theorists who helped define the field of analysing human behaviour into a discipline
The information contained in this presentation has been obtained from Academic sources that are specific to the topic discussed. Informational and official sites and resources were favoured by Team Three, due to the content being endorsed by professionals. Critical evaluation of this factual research and material confirmed to Team Three that although, a resource states information about a particular topic, that does not necessarily deem it credible. The selection of information used in our presentation has been scrutinised and collected with careful consideration.
Stock Photo - Intelligence brain function isolated on a black background with gears and cogs as neurological symbols of mental function [image], (2013), Retrieved September 14, 2013, from http://www.123rf.com/photo_14119277_intelligence-brain-function-isolated-on-a-black-background-with-gears-and-cogs-as-neurological-symbo.html
B F Skinner Foundation (2010). In BF Skinner Foundation’s online organisation page. Retrieved: September, 1 2013 from: http://www.bfskinner.org/bfskinner/AboutSkinner.html
A professional organisation who provide original factual information of Skinners inventions, experiments and research. This site is predominately a biography of Skinners life, which includes his studies dated back to the nineteen thirties. However, it is relatively current to today, as Skinner continued to research and write books well into the nineteen eighties and completed his final talk in nineteen ninety, when he died. However, there could be a slight bias towards Skinners beliefs and research. The website does have a bookstore tab, where Skinners books and DVDs can be purchased. Therefore, the company does have an interest in promoting the ‘Skinner Brand’ and may withhold some of the more controversial works of Skinner. This resource is directly related to the theorist being studied and is therefore specific to the topic.
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theorists - Abraham Maslow. Retrieved September 14, 2013, from Shippensberg University: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Information provided on this site was uploaded from the Shippensberg University Department of Psychology. As a higher learning provider they have a duty of care to provide accurate information. Posted directly from the University's Psychology Department, this information is very relevant to our topic.
Burton. L, Kowalski. R M, Westen, D (2006). Psychology. 2nd Edition. Wiley & Sons Australia. Milton, Australia.
This book is an informational resource written by three authors, two are qualified as Professors in Psychology. The other is Associate Dean in the Psychology Department in the University of Queensland. The studies and information printed in this book are direct findings from previous research strictly for Psychological exploration. Being printed in 2006, further studies have been conducted in the science field to extend on the information in this book. However, the relevant figures and theories are still current to today’s studies. The resource is specific to the topic of Psychology Theorists.
Cherry, K (2005). BF Skinner in About.com’s online library. Retrieved August 28, 2013,from: http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_skinner.htm
About.com is an informational website that has been named by Wikipedia themselves, as their official competitor. The website stores articles on over seven hundred different current and historical topics and is therefore not specific to the topic at hand. They claim their information is original, stating their authors, or as they call them ‘Guides’ are professionals who research each particular topic for their articles.
Cherry, K (2005). Jean Piaget. Retrieved 13 August 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/piaget.htm
The author holds a Bachelor of Science in Psychology and a Master of Science in Education, having writen about diverse topics in psychology. This particular resource is specific to the topic, however you can research all sorts of different topics on About.com
(Kremer & Hammond, 2013)
(Kremer & Hammond, 2013)
This presentation presents four of the founding theorists of Psychology. We have only touched briefly on these theorists and their Biography, Fundamentals of Theory and Influence on Psychology as a Science to give the viewer an overview of their contribution to psychology. More information is readily available through professional organisations, published texts and studies to investigate the foundation of psychology further.
Cherry, K (2005). Sigmund Freud. Retrieved 16 August 2013 from at:http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/a/freudian-theory.htm
The author holds a bachelor of science in Psychology and master of Science in Education and written about diverse topics in Psychology including personality, social behavior, child therapy and much more
Financial Times Prentice Hall. (2001). Handbook or Management (Second Edition ed.). (S. Crainer, & D. Dearlove, Eds.) Great Britain: Pearson Education Limited. Information within this text has been sourced from a large number of contributors. It has been edited and published under the Financial Times and Pearson Education which are a widely used source of texts in higher education facilities. This text is focused on management theories. Maslow's work on human motivation contributed significantly to contemporary studies of management theories and psychology.
Kremer, W., & Hammond, C. (2013, August 31). BBC World Service News Magazine. Retrieved September 14, 2013, from Abraham Maslow and the pyramid that beguiled business: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-23902918
BBC World news service established in 1922. Far reaching readership internationally. Regulated by British Government media bodies. Being government funded the BBC are heavily regulated and have a legal obligation to provide accurate information to their readership. News service both local to Britain and international service. Provides a wealth of information across many subjects both factual news and opinion pieces.
McLeod, S (2009). Jean Piaget. Retrieved 13 August 2013 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html.
The author is a psychology lecturer and holds a degree in Psychology, having recently completed a Masters Degree in Research. He started the website in 2007 by uploading his teaching notes. This resource is specific to the topic because it is "Simply Psychology" - it only contains Psychology articles and information.
Smith, L (2000). A Brief Biography of Jean Piaget. Retrieved 13 August 2013 from http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html.
The society's aim is to provide an open forum for the presentation and discussion of issues related to human knowledge. The website is solely informational to this particular theorist.
Thornton, SP. (2010). Sigmund Freud. Retrieved 16 August 2013 from http://www.iep.utm.edu/freud/
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy which is visited by over 500,00 persons per month. Over 300 Authors hold doctorate degrees and are professors at colleges and universaties around the world
Wikipedia. (2013). Sigmund Freud. Retrieved 16 August 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sigmund_freud
One of the largest referencing websites attracting millions of visitors each month