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Global Terrorism

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Emilee Kloostra

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of Global Terrorism

Global Terrorism
The use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims.
A Bit Of History..
The French Revolution provided the first uses of the words "Terrorist" and "Terrorism". Use of the word "terrorism" began in 1795 in reference to the Reign of Terror initiated by the Revolutionary government. The agents of the Committee of Public Safety and the National Convention that enforced the policies of "The Terror" were referred to as 'Terrorists". The French Revolution provided an example to future states in oppressing their populations. It also inspired a reaction by royalists and other opponents of the Revolution who employed terrorist tactics such as assassination and intimidation in resistance to the Revolutionary agents. The Parisian mobs played a critical role at key points before, during, and after the Revolution. Such extra-legal activities as killing prominent officials and aristocrats in gruesome spectacles started long before the guillotine was first used.

Oklahoma City Bombing
Boston Marathon Bombing
9/11 Attacks
Beslan Massacre
Truck Bombing of U.S. Embassies
Mid-Air Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103
Salmonella Attack
Global Terrorism
Domestic Terrorism
Often referred to as "homegrown" terrorism

This form of terrorism is preformed against ones own country therefore making it domestic.

Terrorists commonly associated with an international organization rather than being a ‘lone wolf’ act committed by isolated and disturbed individuals who have been radicalized apart from contact with a larger like-minded group.

catalysts:
Economic- losing a job, blocked mobility
Social- real or perceived alienation, discrimination, racism
Political- international conflicts involving Muslims to which an individual relates and internalizes as a shared struggle
Personal- death in the close family
Also referred to "international terrorism"

International terrorism involves groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the terrorists country or whose activities transcend national boundaries

Some of these groups include
Al-Qaeda
Al-Shabaab
Hezbollah
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Who Are Terrorists
Stereotypes
Al- Qaeda
Pakistan
As of 2009, it was believed that no more than 200–300 members were still active commanders
Some financing for Al-Qaeda in the 1990s came from the personal wealth of Osama bin Laden. However, financing today comes from the heroin trade, and donations from supporters in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia
They are a radical islamic movement, who believes in strict sharia law
Characteristic techniques employed by Al-Qaeda include suicide attacks and simultaneous bombings of different targets
September 11th, 2001: plane attack on the World Trade Center. The attacks resulted in the deaths of 2,996 people
April 11th, 2002: reportedly firebombed a synagogue in Tunisia, killing 19 and injuring 22
March 11th, 2004: simultaneous bombings of four packed commuter trains in Madrid, Spain killed 190 people, and injured more than 1400
Osama bin Laden
Former leader of Al-Qaeda
Born in Saudi Arabia in 1957
Son of Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a billionaire construction magnate with close ties to the Saudi royal family
Motivated by a belief that U.S. foreign policy has oppressed, killed, or otherwise harmed Muslims in the Middle East
After his initial denial, in 2004 Osama bin Laden finally claimed responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States.
In April 2011, President Obama ordered a covert operation to kill or capture bin Laden. On May 2, 2011, the White House announced that U.S. Navy SEALs had carried it out, killing him in his Abbottabad compound in Pakistan.
Earth Liberation Front
United Kingdom
The ELF was founded in Brighton in the United Kingdom in 1992 and spread to the rest of Europe by 1994. It is now an international movement with actions reported in 17 countries
Classified as the top "domestic terror" threat in the United States by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in March 2001
Techniques involve destruction of property, by either using tools to disable or the use of arson to destroy what activists believe is being used to injure animals, people or the environment
The Earth Liberation Front has no formal leadership, hierarchy, membership or official spokesperson and is entirely decentralized; instead consisting of individuals or cells who choose the term as a banner to use. Individuals are commonly known to work in affinity groups, known as cells, and are usually self-funded
July 21, 1997, Redmond, Oregon: Arson attack on the Cavel West meat packing plant. The plant was in the business of slaughtering horses and then shipping the meat to Europe to be sold there. Estimated cost over $1 million
June 2, 1998, Olympia, Washington: The U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal Damage Control building and another U.S. Department of Agriculture wildlife station, miles apart, go up in flames on the same morning. The Earth Liberation Front and Animal Liberation Front take joint responsibility for both actions. Damages: $1.9 million
March 3, 2008, Street of Dreams, Washington: ELF is the primary suspect for the intentional destruction, by using explosive devices, set fire to four multi-million dollar homes from the 2007 Seattle Street of Dreams in Woodinville, Washington, costing $7 million in damage
Taliban
Afghanistan
It spread from Pakistan into Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001
The majority of the Taliban are made up of Pashtun tribesmen
Their ideology was a departure from the Islamism of the anti-Soviet mujahideen rulers they replaced who tended to be mystical Sufis, traditionalists, or radical Islamicists inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood
The Taliban were very reluctant to share power, and since their ranks were overwhelmingly Pashtun they ruled as overlords over the 60% of Afghans from other ethnic groups
Decisions are based on the advice of the Amir-ul Momineen
Under the Taliban regime, Sharia law was interpreted to forbid a wide variety of previously lawful activities in Afghanistan
One Taliban list of prohibitions included: pork, pig, pig oil, anything made from human hair, satellite dishes, cinematography, musical equipment, pool tables, chess, masks, alcohol, etc.
September 22, 2001 - Fighting begins between the Northern Alliance and the Taliban
January 2002: The Taliban officially capitulates. Pakistani intelligence officials detain Mullah Abdul Salam Zaeef, the Taliban's former ambassador to Pakistan. Zaeef is taken into US custody
September 2006: The Taliban fights back with renewed strength. Suicide bombings and roadside attacks become more frequent and more deadly; nearly 100 are reported to have died from such violence in August and September
Leaders
The highly structured organization of the Taliban allows multiple positions of authority within the group.
Mullah Mohammed Hassan Akhund
First Deputy Council of Ministers
Abdul Rahman Zahed
Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs
Mullah Ubaidullah Akhund
Minister of Defense
Because of media and television, portrayals and influences like the 9/11 attack, western society has come to believe that terrorists are muslim men with turbans and long beards
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks in which 15 of the 19 hijackers were of Saudi Arabian origin and all were of Muslim faith, Arabs and Muslims complained of increased scrutiny and racial profiling at airports
However any person can commit an act of terrorism, and is not limited by race, religion, gender, or country of origin
Who is most likely to join terrorist groups?






What entices them?
terrorists that commit things like suicide bombings are often from poverty backgrounds who are generally oppressed by either the government or society. these terrorist want drastic change in the world around them.
promises of weaponry, money , spiritual enlightenment , governmental change entice people to join these radical groups.
Types of Terrorism
Bioterrorism
terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. These agents are bacteria, viruses, or toxins, and may be in a naturally occurring or a human-modified form.
Cyberterrorism
The use of Internet based attacks in terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks, especially of personal computers attached to the Internet, by the means of tools such as computer viruses.
Ecoterrorism
The use or threatened use of violence of a criminal nature against people or property by an environmentally oriented, subnational group for environmental-political reasons, or aimed at an audience beyond the target, often of a symbolic nature.
Narcoterrorism
Narcoterrorism has had several meanings since its coining in 1983. It once denoted violence used by drug traffickers to influence governments or prevent government efforts to stop the drug trade. In the last several years, narcoterrorism has been used to indicate situations in which terrorist groups use drug trafficking to fund their other operations.
Religious Terrorism
terrorism carried out based on motivations and goals that have a predominantly religious character or influence.
State Terrorism
TERRORISM
State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against a foreign state or people or its own people
Why Terrorism ?
Motifs
Why Turn To Terrorism?

A terrorist group commits acts of violence to -

Produce widesrpead fear
Obtain worldwide, national, or local recognition for their cause by attracting the attention of the media
Harass, weaken, or embarrass government security forces so that the the government overreacts and appears repressive
Steal or extort money and equipment, especially weapons and ammunition vital to the operation of their group
Destroy facilities or disrupt lines of communication in order to create doubt that the government can provide for and protect its citizens
Discourage foreign investments, tourism, or assistance programs that can affect the target country’s economy and support of the government in power
Influence government decisions, legislation, or other critical decisions
Free prisoners
Satisfy vengeance
Turn the tide in a guerrilla war by forcing government security forces to concentrate their efforts in urban areas. This allows the terrorist group to establish itself among the local populace in rural areas


Terrorism, as we know it today, is rooted in frustration, anger, fear, and feelings of helplessness. It is easy to convince a group of very angry, fearful people that violence will get them power. Terrorism is usually motivated by political objectives.
Domestic Terrorist Attack
The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist bomb attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995.
Destruction
The bombing claimed 168 lives and injured more than 680 people.
The chief conspirators, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, met in 1988 at Fort Benning during basic training for the U.S. Army. McVeigh later decided to bomb a federal building as a response to the raids of the burning and shooting deaths of David Koresh and 75 others.
Motivation
McVeigh was arrested within 90 minutes of the explosion.Ibrahim Ahmad, a Jordanian-American traveling from his home in Oklahoma City to visit family in Jordan on April 19, 1995, was also arrested in what was described as an "initial dragnet."
Arrests
The Oklahoma City bombing was the deadliest act of terrorism against the United States on American soil until the September 11 attacks six years later. It has been estimated that about 387,000 people in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area (a third of the population) knew someone who was directly affected by the bombing. Shortly after the bombing, the FBI hired an additional 500 agents to investigate potential domestic terrorist attacks.
Aftermath
During the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, two pressure cooker bombs exploded at 2:49 pm EDT, killing 3 people and injuring an estimated 264 others.[3] The bombs exploded about 13 seconds and 210 yards (190 m) apart, near the finish line.
Charges and Detention
On April 22, formal criminal charges were brought against Dzhokhar Tsarnaev in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts during a bedside hearing while he was hospitalized. He was charged with use of a weapon of mass destruction, and with malicious destruction of property resulting in death
According to FBI interrogators, Dzhokhar and his brother were motivated by extremist Islamic beliefs, and "were not connected to any known terrorist groups.
Motivations
The hijackers flew the plane into the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 8:46 a.m.
The hijackers flew the plane into the South Tower of the World Trade Center at 9:03 a.m.
The hijackers flew the plane into the Pentagon at 9:37 a.m.
As passengers attempted to subdue the hijackers, the aircraft crashed into the ground near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, at 10:03 a.m.
IDEOLOGY

Separatist.
separatist groups are those with the goal of separation from existing entities through independence, political autonomy, or religious freedom or domination. The ideologies separatists subscribe to include social justice or equity, anti-imperialism, as well as the resistance to conquest or occupation by a foreign power.

Revolutionary
Dedicated to the overthrow of an established order and replacing it with a new political or social structure. Although often associated with communist political ideologies, this is not always the case, and other political movements can advocate revolutionary methods to achieve their goals.
Ethnocentric
Groups of this persuasion see race as the defining characteristic of a society, and therefore a basis of cohesion. There is usually the attitude that a particular group is superior because of their inherent racial characteristics.
Political
Political ideologies are concerned with the structure and organization of the forms of government and communities. While observers outside terrorist organizations may stress differences in political ideology, the activities of groups that are diametrically opposed on the political spectrum are similar to each other in practice.
Religious
Religiously inspired terrorism is on the rise, with a forty-three percent increase of total international terror groups espousing religious motivation between 1980 and 1995. While Islamic terrorists and organizations have been the most active, and the greatest recent threat to the United States, all of the major world religions have extremists that have taken up violence to further their perceived religious goals. Religiously motivated terrorists see their objectives as holy writ, and therefore infallible and non-negotiable
Social
Often particular social policies or issues will be so contentious that they will incite extremist behavior and terrorism. Frequently this is referred to as "single issue" or "special interest" terrorism. Some issues that have produced terrorist activities in the United States and other countries include animal rights, abortion, ecology/environment, and minority rights.

Strong ideas and feeling push groups to act out violently. These ideas are extreme and often considered radical
Methods of Terrorism
Bombings are the most common type of terrorist act. Typically, improvised explosive devices are inexpensive and easy to make. Modern devices are smaller and are harder to detect. They contain very destructive capabilities; for example, on August 7, 1998, two American embassies in Africa were bombed. The bombings claimed the lives of over 200 people, including 12 innocent American citizens, and injured over 5,000 civilians. Terrorists can also use materials that are readily available to the average consumer to construct a bomb.
Bombings

Terrorists use kidnapping and hostage-taking to establish a bargaining position and to elicit publicity. Kidnapping is one of the most difficult acts for a terrorist group to accomplish, but, if a kidnapping is successful, it can gain terrorists money, release of jailed comrades, and publicity for an extended period. Hostage-taking involves the seizure of a facility or location and the taking of hostages. Unlike a kidnapping, hostage-taking provokes a confrontation with authorities. It forces authorities to either make dramatic decisions or to comply with the terrorist’s de- mands. It is overt and designed to attract and hold media attention. The terrorists’ intended target is the audience affected by the hostage’s confinement, not the hostage.

Kidnappings and Hostage-Takings
Armed Attacks and Assassinations
Armed attacks include raids and ambushes. Assassinations are the killing of a selected victim,usually by bombings or small arms.Drive-by shootings is a common technique employed by unsophisticated or loosely organized terrorist groups. Historically, terrorists have assassinated specific individuals for psychological effect.

Arsons and Firebombings
Incendiary devices are cheap and easy to hide. Arson and firebombings are easily conducted by terrorist groups that may not be as well-organized, equipped, or trained as a major terrorist organization. An arson or firebombing against a utility, hotel, government building, or industrial center portrays an image that the ruling government is incapable of maintaining order.

Hijackings and Skyjackings
Hijacking is the seizure by force of a surface vehicle, its passengers, and/or its cargo. Skyjacking is the taking of an aircraft, which creates a mobile, hostage barricade situation. It provides terrorists with hostages from many nations and draws heavy media attention. Skyjacking also provides mobility for the terrorists to relocate the aircraft to a country that supports their cause and provides them with a human shield, making retaliation difficult.

Funding can be raised in both legal and illegal ways. Some of the most common ways to raise funds are through front groups, charitable organizations, or NGOs with similar ideologies. In the absence of state funding, terrorists may rely on organized crime to fund their activities. This has included kidnapping, drug trafficking, or robbery.

How ?
Suicide Attacks
A suicide attack is an attack upon a target, in which an attacker intends to kill others and/or cause great damage, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process. Between 1981 and 2006, 1200 suicide attacks occurred around the world, constituting 4% of all terrorist attacks but 32% (14,599 people) of all terrorism related deaths. 90% of these attacks occurred in Iraq, Israel, Afghanistan, Pakistan or Sri Lanka.

Anti-Terrorism Movements
Before
There was no Department of Homeland Security (DHS) at all before 9/11 In the United States
After
the FBI can now freely search emails, phone records and financial records without a court order, the Secretary of the Treasury can oversee any and all overseas financial transactions, and immigration authorities have total freedom to detain or deport immigrants suspected of activities related to terrorism

A $60 billion per year entity formed after 9/11 that is entirely devoted to preventing terrorism.

1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies work on programs related to counter terrorism, homeland security and intelligence in about 10,000 locations across the U.S., most of which were formed since 2001.

Increased security measures everywhere , especially airports

The 9/11 Attack
168 Reasons to love one another
The War On Terror
Racial Profiling
Counter Terrorism Across The Globe

The cross of Jesus imaged on the chain link fence surrounding the bomb site in Oklahoma City speaks volumes – "168 Reasons to Love One Another." While many in Oklahoma City and around the US wanted the death penalty for Timothy McVeigh, others rose above their pain and rage and heard the words of Jesus: "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do." Bud Welch was one of those courageous Christians who reached out to the father of Timothy McVeigh and then to Timothy himself. What made this gesture of reconciliation so profound was that Bud’s 23 year-old daughter Julie was one of those 168 victims.
The threat of terrorism in the western world was extremely low
Funding was spent of more immediate risks
Better screening of immagrents
The Canadian Anti-terrorism Act
The fear of terrorism is creating a new form of racial profiling where innocent Muslim people or people who appear to be of middle-eastern decent are being discriminated against or attacked. Unfortunately, many of these people have been targeted out of ignorance. Our only point of reference of what a terrorist looks like is what we’ve seen in the media. We’ve been told that they are Arabs, Afghans, Muslims, etc. These vague descriptions and observations are not enough to pass judgment against an entire race or an entire religion.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) is a term commonly applied to an international military campaign which started as a result of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This resulted in an international military campaign to eliminate al-Qaeda and other militant organizations. The United Kingdom and many other NATO and non-NATO nations such as Pakistan participate in the conflict
Their goals are to:
Identify, locate and demolish terrorists along with their organizations

End the state sponsorship of terrorism

Abolish terrorist sanctuaries and havens

Partner with the international community to strengthen weak states and prevent (re)emergence of terrorism
Specific types of responses include:

Targeted laws, criminal procedures, deportations, and enhanced police powers
Target hardening, such as locking doors or adding traffic barriers
Preemptive or reactive military action
Increased intelligence and surveillance activities
Preemptive humanitarian activities
More permissive interrogation and detention policies
The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a controversial United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba, established in January 2002.
Guantanamo Bay
Torture?
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) inspected the camp in June 2004. In a confidential report issued in July 2004 and leaked to The New York Times in November 2004, Red Cross inspectors accused the U.S. military of using "humiliating acts, solitary confinement, temperature extremes, use of forced positions" against prisoners.
The Beslan massacre started the first of September 2004, lasted three days and involved the capture of hostages and the death of hundreds.
Destruction
The capture of over 1,100 people as hostages (including 777 children), ending with the death of over 380 people.
Motivation
The hostage-takers were reported to have made the following demands:

Recognition of the independence of Chechnya at the UN and withdrawal of Russian troops
Presence of the following people at the school: Aleksander Dzasokhov (president of North Ossetia), Murat Zyazikov (president of Ingushetia), Ruslan Aushev (former president of Ingushetia), Leonid Roshal (a paediatrician). Alternatively, instead of Roshal and Aushev, the hostage-takers might have named Vladimir Rushailo and Alu Alkhanov (pro-Moscow President of Chechnya
Aftermath
In the wake of Beslan, the government proceeded to toughen laws on terrorism and expand the powers of law enforcement agencies
The 1998 United States embassy bombings were a series of attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998, in which hundreds of people were killed in simultaneous truck bomb explosions at the embassies of the United States in the East African cities of Dar es Salaam and Nairobi.
Destruction
The deaths of 224 people and over 4,000 injuries
Motivation
The bombings are widely believed to have been revenge for American involvement in the extradition, and alleged torture, of four members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) who had been arrested in Albania in the two months prior to the attacks
Aftermath
Both embassies were heavily damaged and the Nairobi embassy had to be rebuilt. It is now located across the road from the office of the World Food Programme for security purposes. A few months after the attacks and subsequent American missile strikes in Afghanistan, the American energy company Unocal withdrew its plans for a gas pipeline through Afghanistan
Pan Am Flight 103 (involved in the Lockerbie bombing) was a Pan Am transatlantic flight from Frankfurt to Detroit via London and New York City that was destroyed by a terrorist bomb on Wednesday, 21 December 1988
Destruction
all 243 passengers and 16 crew on board were killed, Large sections of the aircraft crashed into Lockerbie, Scotland, killing 11 more people on the ground.
Motivation
The motive that is generally attributed to Libya can be traced back to a series of military confrontations with the US Navy that took place in the 1980s in the Gulf of Sidra, the whole of which Libya claimed as its territorial waters.
Aftermath
On 29 May 2002, Libya offered up to US$2.7 billion to settle claims by the families of the 270 killed in the Lockerbie bombing, representing US$10 million per family
The 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack was the food poisoning of individuals in The Dalles, Oregon, United States, through the deliberate contamination of salad bars at ten local restaurants with salmonella.
Destruction
751 people infected, 45 hospitalizations
Motivation
The commune leadership planned to sicken and incapacitate voters in The Dalles, where most of the voters resided, in continuation of their efforts to rig the election.[14] Approximately twelve people were involved in the plots to employ biological agents, and at least eleven were involved in the planning proces
Aftermath
"We lost our innocence over this ... We really learned to be more suspicious ... The first significant biological attack on a U.S. community was not carried out by foreign terrorists smuggled into New York, but by legal residents of a U.S. community. The next time it happens it could be with more lethal agents ... We in public health are really not ready to deal with that."
The earliest known organization that exhibited aspects of a modern terrorist organization was the Zealots of Judea. Known to the Romans as sicarii, or dagger-men , they carried on an underground campaign of assassination of Roman occupation forces, as well as any Jews they felt had collaborated with the Romans. Their motive was an uncompromising belief that they could not remain faithful to the dictates of Judaism while living as Roman subjects. Eventually, the Zealot revolt became open, and they were finally besieged and committed mass suicide at the fortification of Masada.
Early Terrorism
Questions?
By: Kristina Gottschling and Emilee Kloostra
Where Is This Happening?
Who is most affected?
1. Iraq
2. Pakistan
3. Afghanistan
4. India
5. Yemen
6. Somalia
7. Nigeria
8. Thailand
9. Russia
10. Philippines
Why Target Western Countries ?
Why do terrorists hate America enough to give up their lives in order to deal the country such mortal blows? Of course it's not America the terrorists hate; it's American foreign policy. It's what the United States has done to the world in the past half century -- all the violence, the bombings, the depleted uranium, the cluster bombs, the assassinations, the promotion of torture, the overthrow of governments, and more.
Most Americans find it difficult in the extreme to accept the proposition that terrorist acts against the United States can be viewed as revenge for Washington,s policies abroad. They believe that the US is targeted because of its freedom, its democracy, its modernity, its wealth, or just being part of the West.
Why Iraq?
Iraq accounts for about a third of all terrorist deaths over the last decade.
Iraq has suffered the most devastation from terrorism out of any nation over the last decade. The type of attacks used by terrorists is almost exclusively firearms and bombs/explosives which is a reflection of the wider conflict and context in which terrorist incidents occur. Although the majority of the terrorist incidents were not claimed by any group, out of the attacks in which the perpetrator was known, most were carried out by Islamic extremists. Targets of the terrorist attacks were private citizens and property, police and government institutions. In terms of the geographical distribution of terrorist attacks, 45% occurred in Baghdad. Other theatres of conflict like the cities of Mosul, Kirkuk and Fallujah saw high numbers of attacks and deaths. A total of nearly 500 different cities and towns experienced some kind of terrorism, indicating that terrorism was diffuse and spread across the whole of the country.
Timothy McVeigh
McVeigh was a militia movement sympathizer and Gulf War veteran, sought revenge against the federal government for their handling of the Waco Siege, which ended in the deaths of 76 people exactly two years prior to the bombing, as well as for the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992. McVeigh hoped to inspire a revolt against what he considered to be a tyrannical federal government. He was convicted of eleven federal offenses and sentenced to death. His execution took place on June 11, 2001, at the Federal Correctional Complex in Terre Haute, Indiana. Terry Nichols and Michael Fortier were also convicted as conspirators in the plot.
Solutions to Terrorism?
People the world over are trying to find a solution to terrorism. The authorities are trying to crush the terror menace through legal action; western powers are trying to crush it through warfare; however, these methods are, apparently, proving ineffective.
Our opinion is that we need to replace the ideology of violence with an ideology of peace.
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