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Osteoporosis Concept Map
Transcript of Osteoporosis Concept Map
Being over 50 years old
Lack of physical activity
Women, especially post menopausal
Caucasian and Asian
Excessive alcohol use
Petite and thin body frames
Onset of osteopenia
Diet lacking in vitamin D, calcium, fruits and vegetables
Too much protein, sodium, or caffeine PREVENTION Primary Secondary Tertiary Stay physically active
Don't use alcohol in excess
Recognize potential risk factors
(hereditary, age, sex, body size)
Eat a proper diet full of calcium,
vitamin D, fruits, and vegetable Bone mineral density tests
Duel X-ray Absorbtiometry Calcium in diet or supplements
Weight bearing exercises
Prevent any falls
Testosterone for men Pathophysiology Osteoporosis mainly results from an imbalance between bone resorption and formation so that bone resorption becomes greater than the formation. This will vary depending on age, gender, hereditary traits, activity levels, and nutritional status. The loss of bone mass is greatest during menopause, when estrogen levels are low...thus associated with an increase in cytokines that stimulate the production of osteoclasts which break down bone mass. Similarly, deficiency of testosterone in males may lead to senile osteoporosis. Other ways that bone absorption is increased include: decreased activity, endocrine disorders, and hyperthyroidism which causes an acceleration of bone turnover. Some malignancies secrete osteoclast-activating factors, causing significant bone loss. Alcohol is also a direct inhibitor of osteoblasts and may also inhibit calcium absorption. Signs and Symptoms Often called a "silent" disease because signs and symptoms aren't too noticeable
First symptom is often a fracture occurring without using much force
Bone pain, height loss, backaches Link Between Patho and Signs and Symptoms Bone thinning from osteoporosis can cause a curved spine which is called a dowager's hump. This happens from bones in the spine compressing or a fracture of the vertebra, creating an unnatural curve.
The loss of bone mass makes them very weak and leads to easy fractures and pain
Secondary Effects Chronic pain
Vertebral fractures and complications
Collapse of vertebra can possible lead to compression of vital organs
Negative impact on quality of life: fear of falling and limited mobility
Medical Diagnosis and Treatments DIAGNOSIS: Bone marrow density tests (BMD) show how dense bones are and if a patient is at risk for osteoporosis. Urine and blood tests also help indicate the metabolism of bones. Duel X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is the most common way to diagnose a patient. DXA measures spine, hip, or total body bone density to gauge fracture potential. A bone mineral density value greater than 2.5 standard deviations below the mean for normal young white women.
TREATMENT: It is important to identify high risk factors so treatment can begin early. Regular exercise and adequate calcium intake are important. Antiresorptive agents and anabolic agents are often given to help fight against decreasing bone density. Hormone injections also can help stimulate osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts. Walking or swimming are encouraged as low stress physical activity. Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions 1. Disturbed body image related to decreased bone density as evidenced by fractures and loss of height.
Patient will express positive feelings about himself
Patient will acknowledge change in body image
2. Risk for injury related to imbalance of bone resorption and bone formation as evidenced by decreased bone density levels.
Patient will identify factors that increase potential for injury
Patient will identify and apply safety measures to prevent injury
REFERENCES Porth, C.M. & Matfin, G. (2009). Pathophysiology:Concepts of
altered health states (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Ralph, S., & Taylor, C. (2008). Nursing diagnosis reference manual
(7th ed.). Pennsylvania: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.