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Lesson 6 Psycholinguistics


Christian Cristoful

on 30 April 2014

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Transcript of Lesson 6 Psycholinguistics

Aphasia is a loss of the capacity to symbolise, either expressively or receptively. Aphasics may present a primary deficit in the formulation of sentences, in the processing of heard sentences, or in the meanings of words. A wide variation exists in severity, from complete loss of all language function to a barely noticeable difficulty in finding words. Aphasia is often accompanied by other losses, as in reading, writing, or sign language abilities.

Some children are delayed in language development, while others develop in a deviant way. Mental retardation, profound hearing loss prior to acquiring language (typically either congenitally or as a result of a serious illness such as meningitis), neurological dysfunction due to injury during pregnancy or birth, or serious emotional problems can all be causes. Two specific causative disorders, childhood schizophrenia and autism, are still poorly understood.
Aphasia is the loss or impairment of the ability to use spoken and written words. The disorder may follow damage to the dominant hemisphere of the brain, which, in right-handed persons, is almost always the left hemisphere. The two broad classifications of aphasia are Broca's and Wernicke's. In Broca's aphasia--also known as expressive, motor, nonfluent, or telegrammatic aphasia--patients understand speech reasonably well but have difficulty in retrieving words and hence in naming objects or expressing themselves. In Wernicke's aphasia--also known as receptive, sensory, fluent, or jargon aphasia--patients produce fluent but nonsensical speech, or jargon, and comprehend poorly the speech of others.
"If I will forget thee, Jerusalem, let my right
hand die-let my tongue stick to the roof of my mouth" Psalm 137:5
"...food grows out of the earth, but underneath the same earth, it is like fire, all is torn up and crushed"
Job 28:5
The inner earth is made of fire
"God stretched out the
northern sky and hung the earth in empty space" Job 26:7
The earth floats with no supporting axis.
Phineas Gage
Carl Wernicke
Polish Neuro-surgeon Assistant
Theories of localisation:
different abilities and behaviours
seem to be traceable.
Phrenology (not considered scientific):
determining personality traits, intellectual
capacities according to the bumps of
the skull.
Modularity: the brain is divided into distinct anatomical faculties.
Franz Joseph Gall
The wind weights
(3.500 years after in 1633 Galileo Galilei
and in 1643 Torricelli stated the same thing)
"When God gave the
wind its weight..." Job 28:25
Phineas Gage
Related language to the left area
of the brain.
Broca's area
Damage to the front part of the left hemisphere results in loss of speech
Language is lateralized
(localised in one side of the
brain or the other)
Paul Broca
French Surgeon:
Verbal Stereotypes-have a few words or sentences that they use over and over
again to answer every question.
Jargon-Convincing, fluent speech; irrelevant and has no meaning.
Agrammatism-Leave out the function words, use broken speech;
common in non-fluent aphasic patients.
Neologism-Use made-up words confidently as though they were the correct word.
Paraphasia-use of word substitutions; may use a word that sounds like the target word,
or may use a word that means something similar.
Anomia-problem with word finding. They know what they want to say but can't find the words to say it. Sometimes they can be cued or recall by gestures.
Behaviors of Aphasic Patients
"...It was made
by the one who sits on his throne above the round earth and beyond the sky" Isaiah 40:22;
The world is round.
Thales /'θeIli:z/(624-547 B.C., Ionian) was a Greek philosopher who traveled widely in Mesopotamia and Egypt, and brought astronomical records from these cultures back to Greece. He believed that the Earth is a disk floating on an endless ocean. Legend has it that he correctly predicted a solar eclipse in the year 585 B.C.
Anaximander (611-547 B.C., Ionian) was a Greek philosopher who made the first detailed maps of the Earth and the sky. He knew that the Earth was round, and believed that it was free-floating and unsupported. He measured its circumference, and was the first to put forward the idea that celestial bodies make full circles in their orbits. One of his greatest contributions was the fact that he was the first to conceptualize space as having depth.
In 1970 Russian geologists started drilling into the Kola Peninsula, near Finland, hoping to learn more about Earth’s enigmatic insides. After 22 years of digging, work had to stop when the crust turned gooey under the drill bit; at 356 degrees Fahrenheit, the underground rock was much hotter than expected at that depth. The result of the scientists’ grand effort: a tunnel as wide as a cantaloupe extending all of 7.6 miles down.
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