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Transcript of Holocaust Webquest
Have a safe trip on this journey and watch out for the Nazi's!!! Holocaust Web Quest Journey Back to the Holocaust Historians Amina Smith
Aneas Douglas Task #1:
1.The people housed in the annex kept their presence a secret by scheduling times for eating, and using the restroom, and being as quiet as possible. They also had blackout curtains.
2.The people most responsible for helping those in hiding were Miep Gies, Bep Voskuijl, Victor Kugler, and Johannes Kleiman.
3.The people who shared the annex with Anne and the Frank family are Hermann and Auguste van Pels with their son Peter, and Fritz Pfeffer. Task #2
In the Beginning: The Rise of the Nazi Party
World War I was pivotal in setting Germany up to follow the Nazis and Adolf Hitler. You will now go back to Germany and see for yourself the impact Hitler had on the German people. Using the links listed below, write the answers to the following questions on your answer sheet.
1.How did the end of WWI leave Germany open to follow a man like Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party?
It left Germany in chaos. When a new government tried to take over named the Weimar Republic, governments left and right tried to gain more power than the other. This left a perfect opportunity for Adolf Hitler to become the Chancellor of Germany and start the Nazi Party.
2. When did Hitler become the official leader of the Nazi Party?
In 1921 Hitler became the official leader of the Nazi Party.
3. What was Mein Kampf?
This was a book written by Hitler when he was in prison. It was published in 1925. It is about Hitler's radical ideas of German nationalism, anti-Semitism, and anti-Bolshevism.
4. What reason did Hitler give for attempting to annihilate the Jewish People?
Hitler said that during the war, the Jewish people stabbed them in the back and didn’t help. He explained as if they were obligated to help the German race. Task #3: Nazi Propaganda
1.What is the definition of propaganda?
Propaganda is the coordinated attempt to influence public opinion through the use of media.
2.How did the use of propaganda aide Hitler’s leadership?
It was used by the NDSAP during Adolf Hitler’s leadership of Germany (1933-1945). The National Socialist propaganda provided an important instrument for maintaining power. It was also used for the enforcement of their policies, including the killing of millions of people in the Holocaust.
3.In Chapter IV of Mein Kamof, Hitler reveals his ideas about propaganda. Write at least three of the criteria Hitler believes about propaganda.
-Propaganda must always address itself to broad masses of the people.
-All propaganda must be presented in a popular form and must fix its intellectual level to be above the heads of the least intellectual.
-The art of propaganda consists precisely in being able to awaken the imagination of the public through an appeal to their feelings.
4.Look at the cartoon on the right. What is it trying to say?
It is saying that if the Nazis don’t stop the Jews, the Jews will take over and end the German population.
5.Examine the many examples of Nazi Propaganda. Pick one of the cartoons or posters and print it out. On the print out, explain the message and why the cartoon and do a quick sketch of it. Then explain what it means. Task #4
The Nuremberg Laws
On September 15, 1935, the Nuremberg Laws were passed. These Laws severely limited what Jews could do in Germany.
The first law was “The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor”. This regarded Jewish marriage. The second law was "The Reich Citizenship Law" which designated Jews as subjects. The third law was "The Law for the Protection of the Genetic Health of the German People," which required all persons wanting to marry to submit to a medical examination, after which a "Certificate of Fitness to Marry" would be issued if they were found to be disease free. The certificate was required in order to get a marriage license. The fourth law was “Nuremburg Law Extended To Other Groups”, which was the first supplemental decree of the Nuremberg Laws extends the prohibition on marriage or sexual relations between people who could produce "racially suspect" offspring. A week later, the minister of the interior interprets this to mean relations between "those of German or related blood" and Roma (Gypsies), blacks, or their offspring. The last law was “Nuremburg Laws Are Instituted”, which means at their annual party rally, the Nazis announce new laws that revoke Reich citizenship for Jews and prohibit Jews from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of "German or related blood." "Racial infamy," as this becomes known, is made a criminal offense. The Nuremberg Laws define a "Jew" as someone with three or four Jewish grandparents. Consequently, the Nazis classify as Jews thousands of people who had converted from Judaism to another religion, among them even Roman Catholic priests and nuns and Protestant ministers whose grandparents were Jewish.
1.Hitler’s goal to complete in the Olympics was to hide Germany’s racial prejudice. He spent $25 million dollars in cleaning streets and facilities so that he could stage a happy Germany for the Olympics.
2.Jessie Owens won 4 gold medals, in the 100-meter dash, 200-meter dash, Broad (long) jump, and the 4x100-meter relay.
3.Helene Mayer was the only German Jew to participate in the in the 1936 Winter Games.
4.Helene Mayer was the only German Jew to participate in the in the 1936 summer Games.
On the nights of November 9-10, 1938 violence erupted against the Jews in Germany and Austria. Your assignment is to find out why this occurred and what happened to thousands of Jews as a result. Be very careful--keep your identity a secret--the SS is EVERYWHERE!!
1. What happened on the night of Kristallnacht?
Nazi’s unleashed a wave of pogroms on Germany’s Jews. They burned downed thousands of synagogues, houses, and stores. Shattered window panes carpeted the streets.
2. What was the German reason for taking such drastic action?
Zindel Grynszpan’s son was in Paris, living with his uncle. He found out they had been expulsed. He went to the German embassy in Paris on November 7, intending to assassinate the German Ambassador to France. Upon discovering that the Ambassador was not in the embassy, he settled for a lesser official, Third Secretary Ernst vom Rath. Rath was critically wounded and died two days later, on November 9. Adolf Hitler found that this was a great opportunity to release a pogrom against German Jews.
3. How many Jews were sent to concentration camps as a result of that night?
30,000 men and women were sent to concentration after that night.
4. What happened to the Jewish businesses?
They were destroyed and they couldn’t be opened back up unless the owner was a non-Jew.
The Final Solution
The Final Solution was the way the Nazis decided to deal with the Jewish problem. This 'Final Solution' would result in the death of over 5 million European Jews. Go behind the front lines and discover how this could be accomplished in a 'civilized world'.
1. What was the Madagascar Plan?
The Madagascar Plan was to force emigrate all Jews. They were to be shipped to Madagascar in 1940.
2. Why didn't the process of emigration (leaving Germany) work for the Jews?
It was not until 1941 that the Nazi bureaucrats were referring to the "Final Solution" in the context of genocide rather than a "Territorial Final Solution" in the context of forced emigration.
3. Describe how the Jews were transported to the death camps.
Jews were first arrested and sent to ghettoes for holding places. Then, they were sent to concentration camps by cattle cars. Thousands and thousands were immediately sent to gas chambers and others were forced to live in the inhuman conditions in the concentration camps.
4. Who was in charge of transporting the Jews to the death camps?
Nazi soldiers were in charge of transporting Jews to the death camps. Task 8
1.Chelmno has 3 gas vans. They pumped carbon monoxide through pipes connected to silver cans in the front of the van.
2.The living conditions at the camps where terrible. Victims shared bunk beds infested with rat and feces and often got sick. A lot of them starved to death and died by diseases if they weren't killed.
3.Forced laborers worked about 10 hours a day, the rest of the day was used in assemblies, lines for food or bathrooms, and sleeping.
4.Food was given to victims by lining up in a line for their rations. They each received 1,300 calories a day , unless they were laborers, who got 1,700 calories a day.
5.About 1.6 million Jews were killed at Auschwitz
6.Some extermination camps in Poland are Treblinka, Sobibor, Majdanek, Blezec and Auschwitz. Task #9:
1. The three broad classes of medical experiments conducted at Dachau were, effects of high altitude,
freezing temperatures, and the ingestion of seawater.
2. The experiments were tested out on prisoners so that they could find an effective treatment for hypothermia, and why not use the prisoners when they would eventually put them through a lot of pain and kill them.
3. Joseph Mengele did so many experiments on twins because of the Nazi ideal of the future (blond haired blue eyed people). Mengele thought that twins had the secrets to making this come true.
4. Three other medical experiments that were carried out on Jewish prisoners are The Sun Lamp- prisoners were placed under sun lamps so hot that it would burn the skin, Internal Irrigation- they would freeze the prisoner and then have water heated to an extremely hot temperature irrigated into their stomach, bladder, and intestines, and another would be the hot bath experiment. The hot bath experiment was when they would place the prisoner in warm and water and slowly increase it; many prisoners would die from shock if they were warmed to quickly. Task #10: Children and the Holocaust
It is estimated that 1 ½ million of the 6 million Jews murdered during the Holocaust were children. The number of children who survived is estimated to be in the mere thousands. Here you will investigate the plight of Jewish children during this time period.
1. Why did the Nazis consider children unproductive?
Children were generally too young to be deployed at forced labor, German authorities generally selected them, along with the elderly, ill, and disabled, for the first deportations to killing centers, or as the first victims led to mass graves to be shot.
2. What was the fate for most of the Jewish children?
-Children were killed when they arrived in killing centers.
-Children born in ghettos survived because prisoners hid them.
-Children over age 12 were used as laborers and as subjects of medical experiments.
-Children were killed during anti-partisan operations.
3. What was Kindertransport?
Kindertransport (Children's Transport) was the informal name of a series of rescue efforts which brought thousands of refugee Jewish children to Great Britain from Nazi Germany between 1938 and 1940.
4. Using the link, Biographies of Children, choose a child and tell what happened to her/him.
Natan Abbe, the son of Caola and Israel Abbe, grew up in Lodz, Poland. He had two sisters and a younger brother. The large city of Lodz was home to over 233,00 Jews. It was a major center of textile industry. Natan was a 15 year old schoolboy when Germans took over Lodz in September 1939. The Anti-Jewish restrictions were immediately put into place. Jews were assigned a curfew, were forced to wear a yellow star, and their radios were confiscated. Jews were also prohibited from most professions. On February 8, 1940, the Jews were forced to live in a run-down part of the city. On May 1, 1940, the ghetto was closed off. The living conditions of the Jews were terrible. There was no heat, little or no food of medicine, and un-sufficient sanitation. People died in the street from starvation, diseases or exposure. The Germans constantly harassed Jews in the ghettos. People were shot for no reason at all. Natan was shot to death in late 1940 by a German soldier at the ghetto gate. He was 16 years old. Task #11:
1. Alexander Roslan helped save lives by housing and taking care of 3 Jewish children, the Gilat brothers.
2. Cathie Poirier-Prous rescued 236 Jewish children and many Eastern European Jewish adults 1941-1944. While the children were allowed out of the concentration camp to be fed by Jewish families she would bring them in groups of ten to her home for French language lessons. She also worked with several social service organizations such as the French Resistance. She would find families, convents, and schools that would take in threatened children. She was part of a network that distributed smuggled funds to help feed and sustain these children. She was frequently detained and arrested but always managed to get herself out of trouble.
3. Varian Fry helped save thousands of endangered refugees caught in the Vichy French Zone escape from the Nazis during WWII. His actions were unknown until 1991 when he received his first official recognition from a U.S. agency, the United States Holocaust Memorial Council.
4. Paul Grueninger was as of March 1939 no longer in the police force. His benefits were suspended, and he was brought to trial. His retirement benefits were forfeited, he was fined and had to pay the trial costs. He was eventually ostracized and forgotten. It wasn’t until 1995 after he had died (in 1972) that the Swiss Federal Government annulled his conviction. He was able to help the Jews cross the border and enter Switzerland by falsifying their registration, sending in false reports about the number of arrivals and status of refugees in his district, and he delayed efforts to track down refugees that had entered Switzerland illegally.
5. The term ‘Righteous Gentiles’ means- Non-Jewish people who risked their lives to save Jewish people from Nazi prosecution. Task #12
1. Jeannine Burk is a survivor of the Holocaust. Her father died during the Holocaust, he was gassed at Auschwitz. Her mother Sarah Bluman Rafalowicz defied the Gestapo, saving her daughter Augusta and herself from deportation to a concentration camp. In 1950, at age 45 she died of breast cancer. She has a brother who is 12 years older than her and a sister that is 8 years older than her. She survived because her parents had arranged places for them and their children to go. She stayed in hiding at a ladies house during the holocaust. She is married to a man by the name of Maurice. He was widowed with 4 children and she was divorced with 2 boys when they met. She is a secretary, where is unknown.
2. Joseph Sher is another survivor of the Holocaust. He was born in Krzepice, Poland. His father, Simon, was a tailor, and his mother Felicia, raised the children and kept house. He has 5 brothers and sisters. Abe, Leo, Leah, Manya, and Freida. Joseph survived the labor camps because of 2 German Jews that he had met, one a professor and the other a doctor. He isn’t sure how they did it, but it would seem that they got in contact with some guards in the labor camps. The guards took him to the infirmary one night and put him in bandages up to his neck. He was then taken to a horse and buggy and brought to a village. The 2 German Jews were waiting for him there. They took off his bandages, gave him some clothes, and a ticket, and put him on a train home. When Joseph was sick with typhus (which is supposed to be reported to the Germans so that they could finish you off) his sister got in contact with his friend that was a doctor. The doctor had the family build a wall in their apartment to put Joseph behind. Everyday, a nurse would come to give him a shot; he got better after 4 weeks. Now, Joseph is a widower with 2 children.
3. Jeannine Burk looking at a picture of her Task #14: Holocaust Statistics
You have almost finished your assignment on the Holocaust. You are now going to look at numbers and statistics. You will be shocked at the numbers that show the enormity of human loss during this short time period.
1. How many Jews were murdered during World War II?
Approximately 6 million Jews were murdered during World War II.
2. How many non-Jewish civilians were murdered during World War II?
Approximately 5 millions non-Jews were killed during World War II.
3. What other groups of people were persecuted and murdered by the Nazis?
Gypsies, Serbs, Polish, resistance fighters, German opponents of Nazism, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, habitual criminals, and the “anti-social”, e.g. beggars, vagrants, and hawkers.
4. What country lost the largest percentage of their Jewish population?
Poland was the country that lost the largest percentage of their Jewish population.
5. What countries lost over 50% of their Jewish population?
-Yugoslavia Task #13
1. How long did it take General Himmler to put down the uprising in the Warsaw ghetto?
2. How many prisoners were able to escape from Auschwitz?
3. Why was it more difficult for prisoners to resist after being placed
in concentration camps?
-Because they were only given scraps to eat. Stale bread and a small cup of nasty soup was the only thing they were given to eat. They were to tired and weak to resist.
4. Name three methods Jews used to try and resist their fate at the hands of the Nazis.
-They had hunger strikes
-They sang, drew and created poems about freedom
-Denounced Nazis using pamphlets Task #15 N/A Thank you for going
with us on this awesome adventures full of life.