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# Chapter 4: Higher-Order Thinking

EDFI 4020 Trio Share Project
by

## Ashley Shelton

on 23 September 2014

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#### Transcript of Chapter 4: Higher-Order Thinking

Chapter 4:
Allison, Jameson, & Ashley
Problem Solving Strategy:
Use Analogies
Problem Solving Strategy:
Identify Irrelevancies
Problem Solving Strategy:
Integrate Data
Problem Solving Strategy:
Model the Problem
Higher-Order Thinking
What is Higher-Order Thinking?
Includes:
Problem solving in novel situations
"the kind of thinking required when reaching a goal is not automatic and students must use one or more higher-order thinking processes to do it"
Critical Thinking
"is reasonable and reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do"
There are several strategies for assessing good problem solving and critical thinking skills...
Problem Solving Strategy:
Demonstrate Linguistic Understanding
Problem Solving Strategy:
Identify Obstacles
"IDEAL" Problem Solving
I
D
E
A
L
Identify the problem
Define and represent the problem
Explore possible strategies
Act on strategies
Look back and evaluate the effects of your activities
SPAGHETTI TOWER CHALLENGE
MATERIALS:
40 sticks of long yellow spaghetti
1 meter of masking tape (slightly longer than 1 yard) per group
1 piece of square cardstock

The base/top of the tower can be no bigger than the cardstock
Height of the tower must be one spaghetti stick in length
GOOD LUCK!
Yay, you found a solid lead brick!

You measure the length, width and height and find that the dimensions are 2.0in x 4.0in x 8.0in.

What is the volume of the brick?
TRY THIS:
Remember the brick you found before.

Its volume is 64in3.
The density of lead is 11.4g/cm3.

What is the mass of your brick?
Hint: 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters​
TRY THIS:
Students should be able to understand key phrases and vocabulary in the context of the problem
Do you understand what you read enough to put it into your own words?
Sometimes it is helpful to use one similar, analogous situation to solve another
"Members of a certain congressional committee talked a lot during committee hearings. Some members talked to explain their own views, some treated a witness as hostile and tried to discredit the witness's testimony, some wanted to prevent their opponents on the committee from speaking, and some wanted to prolong the debate and the hearing to postpone or prolong a committee vote.

To solve this problem, rules were established to give each committee member a fixed amount of time to speak and to ask questions of a witness. Under these rules, a committee member is allowed to give another member all or part of his allotted time."

Are there other problems in different situations that could be solved by using the same set of rules?
Problem Solving Strategies
Identify the problem
Pose questions
Demonstrate linguistic understanding
Identify irrelevancies
Sort problem cards
Identify assumptions
Describe multiple strategies
Model the problem
Identify obstacles
Justify solutions
Justify strategies used
Integrate data
Produce alternate strategies
Use analogies
Solve backwards
Evaluate the quality of a solution
Systematically evaluate strategies
Critical thinking strategies
Focus on a question
Analyze arguments
Judge the credibility of a source
Judge observation reports
Judge deductions
Judge inductions
Judge definitions
Identify implicit assumptions
Decide on an action
Interact with others
Identify rhetorical mechanisms and tactics
Critical Thinking in action
Analyze the argument
Decide an action
Identify rhetorical mechanisms
Judge value
Judge credibility
What statement is the ad trying to make?
Is Old Spice a credible source for body wash information? Are there biases?
What are Old Spice's values? Are they yours?
References
•Present interpretive material and a problem statement

•Ask students to identify all the irrelevant information

•Be sure that information contains both relevant and irrelevant material

•Present a difficult problem to solve (leaving one missing key piece of information)