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Health Enhancing Behaviour: Exercise

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on 24 June 2015

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Transcript of Health Enhancing Behaviour: Exercise

Health Enhancing Behaviour
Health promotion
is defined by Taylor and Sirois (2014) as a philosophy holding that good health is a personal and collective achievement (p. 47).
Recall that a
health promoting behaviour
is a behaviour we undertake to enhance or maintain our health. (Taylor & Sirois, 2014).

The Stress Process Paradigm
"Negative events present a burden that, unless shielded by protective resources, will compromise mental and physical well-being" (Schafer & Shippee, 2010, p. 246).
Focuses on the relationship between social stress and subsequent mental health outcomes (Martin & Wade, 2000).
Certain stressors can compromise resources that would otherwise be protective factors, such as turbulence within the family unit.
This leads to further decrease in well-being, and increased stress
(Schafer & Shippee, 2010)
Interventions to Promote Physical Activity
Even though physical activity (PA) is a increasingly important factor in the treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases and mental health many clients might be reluctant to engage in regular exercise program.
Health Enhancing Behaviours:
Exercise and Health

Adults should be getting at least 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity each day (Fentem, 1994).
How Stress
Effects Us

makes us weaker and more vulnerable
early stressors can trigger early menarche
causes premature aging
negative effects our memory
chronically stressed people have an older "biological" age on a cellular level
a sense of powerlessness and emotional distress prevents us from projecting our ideal self-presentations (Schafer & Shippee, 2010).
Anderson, E., & Shivakumar, G. (2013). Effects of exercise and physical activity on anxiety. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4 (27), 1-5. doi: 10.3389/fpst.2013.00027.
Cui, L., Hofer, T., Rani, A., Leeuwenburgh, C., & Foster, T., C. (2009). Comparison of lifelong and late life exercise an oxidative stress in the cerebellum. Neurobiology of Aging, 30, 903-909. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiologyaging.2007.09.005.
Fang, Z. H., Lee, C. H., Seo, M. K., Cho, H., Lee, J. G., & Lee, B. J. (2013). Effect of treadmill exercise on the BDNF-mediated pathway in the hippocampus of stressed rats. Neuroscience Research, 76, 187-194. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2013.04.005.
Fentem, P. (1994). Benefits of exercise in health and disease.
British Medical Journal, 308
(6939), 1291-1295. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/29723546
Hartfield, N., Havenhand, J., Khalsa, S., Clarke, G., & Krayer, A. (2011). The effectiveness of yoga for the improvement of well-being and resilience to stress in the workplace.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 37
(1), 70-76. retrieved from http://0-www.jstor.org.darius.uleth.ca/stable/pdf/40967889?acceptTC=true

Watch the video below for a brief explanation!
Our Article
Improves health and prevents disease
increased stamina
reduces risk of injury
ameliorates effects of aging
prevents coronary heart disease
controls body weight
reduces mild anxiety and depression
improves self esteem
improves psychomotor development
improves memory
can counter the effects of stress
(Fentem, 1994)

Benefits of Yoga
Do you know how much exercise should we be getting every day?
When you think of health enhancing behaviours, which do you think are most important?
Which do you think many people are neglecting?
Revisit the concept of health-enhancing behaviours
Explore exercise as a health-enhancing behaviour
Discuss the effects of stress on the human body
Present our chosen article
Discuss an exercise-based intervention to treat stress
Discussion forum question
Preventing Stress

In the UK, stress is perceived as the biggest threat to the health of the future workforce by 97% of human resource professionals.
The occurrence of long-term absences from work is also rising due to psychosocial factors such as stress and depression (Harfiel et al., 2011).
"The inability to cope with a perceived threat to one's mental, physical, emotional, or spiritual well-being" (Hartfiel et al., 2011).
Studies assessing the benefits of yoga have found it to demonstrate substantial positive effects on emotional well-being and resilience to stress (Hartfiel et al., 2011).
Even participating in yoga classes once per week has been shown to reduce perceived stress, stress behaviour, and exhaustion (Hartfiel et al., 2011).
Studies have demonstrated positive influence on mood in psychiatric patients, including less anxiety, depression, hostility, confusion, and fatigue (Hartfiel et al., 2011).
How exercise helps combat stress
Interestingly, exercise shares a few characteristics of an acute stressor and activates the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system (Zschucke, Renneberg, Dimeo, Wustenberg, & Strohle, 2015).
However, exercise has been labeled " a harmless threat to homeostasis" because it is a positive stressor (ibid, 2015).
Anderson and Shivakumar (2013) emphasized that regular aerobic exercise is associated with lower sympathetic nervous system and HPA axis reactivity. Regular exercise results in "positive physiological changes and adaptation in the human body.
Exercise and the Brain
Regular exercise helps to keep the brain in an optimal physiological state by increasing the blood flow and providing oxygen which equals better cognitive functioning (Guincey, Lucas, Cotter, & Machado, 2015).
Increasing blood flow to the brain gives you clarity and a better ability to focus (ibid, 2015)
Watch this video below on the effects of exercise on the brain:
Exercise and the Aging Brain
Research demonstrated that moderate exercise is associated with enhanced neurogenesis-yes, you get new neurons! (Cui, Hofer, Rani, Leeuwenburgh, & Foster, 2009).
Developing new neurons slows down the aging of the brain.
Below is a comprehensive video:
Exercise as a moderator of stress
Scholars emphasize that physical activity may moderate the relationship between stress and health ( Gerber, Brand, Elliot, Holsboer-Trachsler, & Pushe, 2014)
People who exercise regularly also report fewer health complaints.
These researchers demonstrated that stress has the potential to moderate the relationship between stress and mental health problems (ibid, 2014).
Mental Health and Exercise
There is evidence that shows that exercise enhances mood and increases one's coping capacity in response to stress, preventing depression and anxiety (Fang et al.,2013).
Studies performed on rats demonstrated that various types of physical exercise increase the levels of neurotrophins (proteins that induce the survival, development and function of neurons) in the brain.
In particular, exercise increases neurotrophins in the hippocampus to a level similar to that induced by antidepressants (ibid, 2014). Remember hippocampus is linked to learning, memory and cognition.
Watch this video
on exercise and
mental health:
More on the benefits of exercise on mental health
We all get anxious sometimes, especially when overwhelmed with the demands of the day...
Physical activity protects against the onset of stress and anxiety symptoms in healthy people as well as medical patients (Sciolino & Holmes, 2012).
The effectiveness of regular physical activity is "comparable to or better than many standard forms of anxiety treatment" (ibid, 2012).
Exercise reduces anxiety and the effects can bee seen after short- and long-term treatment.
Numerous studies conducted on animals produced strong evidence that exercise and regular activity significantly helps in alleviating the symptoms of anxiety ( Anderson & Shivakumar, 2013). In clinical settings the results of numerous studies also demonstrated that exercise is associate with reduced anxiety (ibid, 2013).
Exercise and the Prevention of Diseases
Anderson and Shivakumar (2013) said:
the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on health are indisputable in the field of modern medicine. Exercise is often the first step in lifestyle modifications for the prevention and management of chronic diseases.
Regular exercise has been shown to
Regular exercise has been shown to signfi
Regular exercise has been shown to significantly lower causes of mortality and chronic diseases (ibid, 2013).
Martin and Wade (2000) completed a study to examine the relationship between exercise and general distress.
Their results revealed that individuals who are inactive reported significantly higher levels of distress than people who are moderately or highly active.
These authors found self-esteem to be a protective factor
Mastery, or the perceived extent of control over one's life, further mediated the relationship between exercise and distress
Chronic stress was found to have the greatest effect on mental health
Stress was reduced over 50% among individuals who were found to be moderately or highly active
And now for some Neuroscience!
The transtheoretical model (TTM) is used frequently to inform the development and implementation of PA interventions (Hutchison & Johnston, 2013).
Using the stage change model how would you encourage implementing exercise as an effective way to cope with stress in a counselling scenario with an adult who suffers from depression. What other interventions could you use?
The Transtheoretical Model (TTM)
Central to promoting exercise and intervention in this model is the concept of stage-matching and the level of a client's readiness ( Hutchison & Johnston, 2013).
Although this model gives a nice overview of the extent to which a person is motivated to engage in exercise, it does not explain why this is the case. Therefore, another dimension of the TTM can be used called the process of change composed of ten processes.
Ten processes of change
consciousness raising
dramatic relief
environmental reevaluation
social liberation
self reevaluation
stimulus control
helping relationships
counter conditioning
reinforcement management
In this approach the clinician needs to consider both the individual's physiological, stress-related symptoms and her or his relating presenting cognitions (Hutchison & Johnston, 2013) For example, clients might have self-doubt-'will I have time to incorporate exercise', 'I don't know anything about exercise' etc.. Those automatic thoughts can be then modified by using cognitive restructuring (Wright, Basco, & Thase, 2007).
CBT Approach to help clients implement exercise
Guiney, H., Lucas, S. J., Cotter, J. D., Machado, L. (2015). Evidence cerebral blood-flow regulation mediates exercise-cognition links in healthy young adults. Neuropsychology, 29(1), 1-9. doi: 10.1037/neu0000124.
Hartfield, N., Havenhand, J., Khalsa, S., Clarke, G., & Krayer, A. (2011). The effectiveness of yoga for the improvement of well-being and resilience to stress in the workplace. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 37(1), 70-76. retrieved from http://0-www.jstor.org.darius.uleth.ca/stable/pdf/40967889?acceptTC=true
Gerber, M., Brand, S., Elliot, C., Holboer-Trachsler, E, Puhse, U. (2014). Aerobic exercise, ball sports, dancing, and weight lifting as moderators of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms: An exploratory cross-sectional study with Swiss university students. Perceptual & Motor Skills: Exercise & Sport, 119(3), 679-697. doi: 10.2466/06.PMS.119c26z4.
Guiney, H., Lucas, S. J., Cotter, J. D., Machado, L. (2015). Evidence cerebral blood-flow regulation mediates exercise-cognition links in healthy young adults. Neuropsychology, 29(1), 1-9. doi: 10.1037/neu0000124.
Hutchison, A. J., & Johnston, L H. (2013). Exploring the potential of case formulation within exercise psychology. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 7, 60-76.
Martin, J., & Wade, T. (2000). The relationship between physical exercise and distress in a national sample of canadians. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 91(4), 302-306. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41993175
Schafer, M., & Shippee, T. (2010). Age identity in context: Stress and the subjective side of aging. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73(3), 245-264. doi: 10.1177/0190272510379751.
Sciolino, N. R., & Holmes, P. V. (2012). Exercise offers anxiolytic potential: A role of stress and brain noradrenergic-galaninergic mechanisms. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 1965-1984. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.005.
Taylor, S., E., & Sirois, F.,M. (2014). Health psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education LLC.
Wright, J. H., Basco, M. R., & Thase, M. E. (2006). Learning cognitive-behaviour therapy: An illustrated guide. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Zschucke, E., Renneberg, B., Dimeo, F., Wustenberg, T., & Strohle, A. (2015). The stress-buffering effect of acute exercise: Evidence for HPA axis negative feedback. Psychoneuroendocrionology, 51, 414-425. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.10.019.
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