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Transcript of World History
2.Trade encourages cultural diffusion and interdependency between societies.
3.Religion impacts societies politically, economically and socially.
4.Internal and external forces cause political, economic and social changes in a society. An Islamic World The rise and role of Dar al-Islam was a unifying cultural and economic force in Eurasia and Africa. The Muslim policy of tolerance towards other religions had a positive effect on the people of Syria, especially the Christians and Jews, who had been persecuted under the Byzantines. Umar realized that the loyalty of his new subjects was paramount to the success of Islamic rule in the region, and he tried not to burden them with excessive taxation or oppression. Umar + Asia More Followers = During the Sui Dynasty (589-618) while China was trying to restore imperial rule, they underwent construction of the Grand Canal. HAPPY UMAR History of Islam The Grand Canal The Fate of Islam Abu Bakr, a father-in-law and close friend of Muhammad, was chosen to take up power in 632 The fall of classical empires led to decentralization of government in China and in Europe leading up to the period of 600 C.E. - 1450.
The rapid growth of Islam after 600 shaped events and societies in parts of Africa, Europe and Southwest Asia.
The collapse of the Han dynasty in China opened the door to the spread and appeal of Buddhism into China, since the Confucian authority was no longer centralized.
In the Western Roman Empire, the fall of the west left a power vacuum that set the stage for the rise of fragmented regional kingdoms.
The Indian Ocean trade route becomes more prosperous as a result of the collapse of classical empires in Rome and China, which had helped secure the overland trade routes. In 635 Umar conquered Syria, taking it from the Byzantines. Overview Tang Dynasty (618 - 907 C.E.)
Song Dynasty (960 - 1279 C.E.)
Early Ming Dynasty
Mongol Empires (Around 1200 - 1550 C.E.) Umar Fights and Conquers Syria
The fall of classical empires led to decentralization of government in China and in Europe leading up to the period of 600 C.E. - 1450.
In the Western Roman Empire, the fall of the west left a power vacuum that set the stage for the rise of fragmented regional kingdoms.
Byzantine Empire (4th century - 1453 C.E.)
The rapid growth of Islam after 600 shaped events and societies in parts of Africa, Europe and Southwest Asia. Tang Dynasty After fall of Han, 400 years of regional kingdoms ruled China.
The Sui dynasty (581 - 618 C.E.) was short lived, but reestablished centralized rule, began construction of the Grand Canal, and set the stage for the post-classical Tang Dynasty. Syria is defeated along with the Byzantines and Umar is happy. The Tang was focused on scholars than soldiers, but did expand to Tibet and Korea.
It completed the Grand Canal, which led to increase in trade within China.
Tang rulers supported Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism.
Confucian beliefs solidified the government through the use of the civil service examination system.
Chang' an became a cosmopolitan capital visited by foreign diplomats from the Byzantine and Arab Worlds, and boasted a population of 2 million people by 640.
This dynasty began to decline due to higher taxes creating tension with the population. Peasant rebellions led to more independent regional rule and the abdication of the Emperor. In 637, after Muslim forces conquered Ctesiphon, they looked to spread their influence towards Egypt. Umar gains
for the Islamic
religion. Tang rulers set up military garrisons to protect the Silk Road Trade.
The equal field system was established to try to limit the power of wealthy landowners. This gave peasants land to farm in return for tax in grain, but it failed to weaken the power of large landowners.
Tang policies also influenced the spread of Buddhism, but saw a backlash toward the end of the dynasty because Buddhism was seen as a foreign religion.
This weakening of Buddhism led to the development of Neo-Confucianism. Marriages were arranged within their social classes. Upper class women could own property, move about in public and remarry. Women could inherit property in the absence of male heirs. The Song reestablished centralized control over China, and maintained the civil service exam system.
The civil service exam system provided upward mobility for males, though the expense of preparation was only afforded by the wealthy.
The Song de-emphasized the military and instead focused on creating a scholar-based government. They also reestablished the tribute system in which neighboring peoples had to pay tribute to keep peace. Economically, the Song saw many important developments.
Fast-ripening rice from Champa (Vietnam) doubled rice production, and trade along the completed Grand Canal connected the northern and southern areas of China.
The population increased and the capital of Kaifeng became a manufacturing center for cannons, movable type printing, water-powered mills, looms and high quality porcelain.
Minted coins were used and were eventually replaced with paper money, while merchants used "flying cash" as credit for trade. The Southern Song established a capital at Hangzhou, where commerce grew.
The Song also used cotton sails and compasses to build a strong navy and the ability to ship more goods to the rest of the world.
Song goods traveled as far as east Africa and the power of the Song shifted south. Women - Women could keep dowries and had access to new jobs such as merchants. Upper class women were subject foot-binding, which was seen as a sign of wealth and status. This increased restrictions in the freedom of women. The Ming dynasty established Chinese rule after the defeat of the Yuan dynasty in 1368.
The dynasty began under Hongwu.
The Ming attempted to destroy all traces of Mongol rule and began by reinstating the civil service examination system.
Central authority was tightened as well.
The Ming relied on mandarins, a class of powerful officials, to implement their policies on the local level.
They used conscripted labor to build irrigation systems, which led to increase in agricultural output.
They did not actively promote trade, but private merchants traded manufactured porcelain, silk and cotton. Under the Ming, the Chinese sought to reestablish a presence in the Indian Ocean by imposing control over trade.
They sent a massive naval expedition to establish tribute states and impress foreigners.
These expeditions were led by Zheng He, a Muslim eunuch who led 300 ships with 28,000 troops.
He sailed around Southeast Asia and out to East Africa. In 1433, Zheng He's expeditions were ended and his records destroyed.
Pressure from Confucian officials convinced the emperor that the expeditions were unneeded and too expensive, and that China should focus on internal stability by protecting the northern border. The Mongol Empires began as nomadic pastors led by Temujin, later named Genghis Khan after uniting the Mongol clans.
They built their empire through conquest and intimidation, mobilizing the entire male population in time of war.
Genghis Khan is believed to have said, "Submit and live. Resist and die."
The Mongols built the largest empire in world history, controlling Central Asia, Tibet, Northern China, and Persia.
In 1215, the Mongols destroyed present-day Beijing.
After the death of Genghis Khan, his empire was divided amongst his four sons into the Yuan, the Persian Ilkhanates (Khanate of Central Asia and the Ilkhan Empire), and The Golden Horde in Russia.
The Mongols attempted to invade Japan, but failed due to typhoon winds that destroyed their fleet. The large empire lasted only a few generations, as the Mongols did not have a large population to maintain the vast territories.
Overspending and inflation, plus weak leadership after Kublai Khan led to the decline of the Mongols. Umar's successor, Uthman, had armies that threatened the Byzantine attempt to reconquer Alexandria in 645, and in 647 he conducted raids west of Egypt, further into Byzantine North Africa.
Meanwhile, Uthman named his cousin, Mu'awiya, governor of Syria, and commissioned the construction of a Muslim fleet to guard the Mediterranean against Byzantine naval attacks. Unlike in China, the Mongols mixed with the local people. With the death of the Prophet in 632, the future of the new religion of Islam was uncertain. Muhammad had held his small community of believers together, but without his guidance, the unity of the Muslim community was threatened. This was a continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire and is the only survivor of the classical period.
Emperor Justinian (527-565) attempted to reconquer the western portion, but failed.
He did succeed at codifying Roman laws (Justinian's Code).
He controlled religious and political life and replaced Latin with Greek as the official language.
The Byzantine Empire was a strong centralized hereditary monarchy.
It had an effective military and a bureaucracy the answered to the emperor.
The empire was administered by dividing it into themes - military districts - controlled by generals.
The Emperor was considered the head of the church and appointed the patriarch.
This concept was called caesaropapism.
In 1054, the Roman Pope and Byzantine Patriarch excommunicated each other and the Christian church split into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity spread into Russia and Slavic territories, while Catholicism spread into Western Europe. Buddhism Buddhism is a religion indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha. Taoism Taoism is a philosophical and religious tradition that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. The term Tao means "way", "path" or "principle". Tao denotes something that is both the source and the driving force behind everything that exists. It is ultimately ineffable: "The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao." Confucianism Confucianism is an ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. Women Neo-Confucianism Neo-Confucianism is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism Song Dynasty Continued to be used and saw the most volume during this period.
Mongols controlled and protected route.
Bubonic plague spread over Silk Roads and led to decrease in its use. After fall of Western Roman Empire, Europe lacked central authority.
Attempts at centralization - Franks under Clovis and Carolingian empire of Charlemagne.
Franks used Church to strengthen their legitimacy.
Feudalism developed - vassals exchange military service and loyalty for land; lords and vassals compete for power - central authority is weak.
Catholic Church was cultural unifier - centralized belief.
By 13th century the church owned one third of land in Western Europe.
Feudal states were the only way to defend against invaders.
Eastern Orthodox Church under the Patriarch of Constantinople.
Roman Catholic Church under the Bishop of Rome (The Pope).
Increase in food production due to heavy plow leads to population growth.
Trade along Black Sea grows. Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human ethnic groups belong to a single community based on a shared morality Cosmopolitan Linked China, India, Southeast Asia, Arabia and East Africa.
Cities located strategically grew
Volume increased as a result of decline of overland routes.
Safe environment for markets, welcomed all merchants, and charged reasonable fees
Magnetic compass spread from China and led to increase in maritime trade and exploration. Women Early Ming Dynasty The Mongols In the 13th century Mongol invasions had a huge impact on history itself. The Mongols established an empire that surpassed the size of Rome's, caputuring India, China, Russia, and the Middle East. From the time the Mongol tribes were established under one rule in 1200, Genghis Khan spent the next 21 years conquering a the good majority of Asia. The Indian Ocean Silk Roads Europe The Byzantine Empire Reconstructing Europe 632 Prophet Mohammed died.
661 marked the first year of Islamic Dynasty established the Umayyad family.
750 the Abbasids overthrew the Ummayyad and they led a dynasty that would last until the Mongol invasion of Baghdad, the Abbasid capital, in 1258 Abu Bakr Umar Spreading Islam Uthman Huge areas of Asia and Europe under one rule - Pax Mongolia
Mongol rule united two continents and allowed relatively safe passage of trade and ideas over the Silk Roads by eliminating tariffs
Silk Roads reached their peak
Paper money spread from China Impact of Mongol Empires Islamic Political Structure After Mohammad, disagreement over succession leads to split between Shia (should be descendant of Mohammad) and Sunni (should be the wisest member of the strongest tribe.
Caliph was hereditary monarchy,
Strong military - employed use of slaves into military. Islam stressed the value of knowledge - House of Wisdom in Baghdad is example, concept of modern libraries
Concept of latitude and longitude
Translated Greek works of literature and teachings of Aristotle; other works from the ancient world survived due to Islam
Art and architecture forbid the use of images - focus was on geometric patterns and calligraphy
Period considered the Islamic Golden Age
Improved Chinese paper making techniques
Universities set up to study science, chemistry, astronomy, mathematics, physics and medicine
Book of One Thousand and One Nights - most famous fiction work
Wrote epic poetry, philosophy novels Art, Science, and Technology Corrupt governments in both empires.
Infighting among political elites.
Empires too large in area to manage.
Invasions from hostile nomadic tribes.
Social inequality among the classes with tax burdens on lower classes.
Inequitable distribution of lands.
Decline in morals and values.
Public health and urban decay.
Unemployment and inflation. The Fall of the Rome and Han Dynasty The Tang and Song Dynasty were considered the "Golden Age" of China. China had the economic innovations of paper money, and flying cash (letters of credit) during this time. Bibliography https://sites.google.com/site/rodriguez207/Home/600-1450