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TOK

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by

Hoda Labib

on 23 December 2014

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Transcript of TOK

To what extent do 'Language' and 'Emotion' play a significant role in shaping people's ideologies?
Hoda Labib
American rapper Abby reverted to Islam in 2012
“brainwashed” by her Muslim friends
Her mother fears she might “turn into a terrorist.”
Dr. Phil tried to help them reconnect.
Abby and her mother have been estranged for more than a year, because her mother doesn’t approve of this conversion.
turned her back on her family and her country
"I think they have a hidden agenda for her
When i think of Kristen being muslim, I think about
Al-Qaeda, terrorist bombings, Usama Bin-Laden, I never hear anything positive about them. Ever.
It hurts me to see her like this, because she looks nothing like my daughter
ISLAM = TERROR
Since when?
Why?
Stereotype?
True?
Uninformed conclusion?
Who is responsible?
Hasty generalization?
To what extent do 'Language' and 'Emotion' play a significant role in shaping people's ideologies about Islam?

How did they reach this conclusion?
Islam is associated with terrorism
How do they know?
Is this true?
History as an AOK
Memory
9/11
Osama Bin Laden
Focus on significant events, automatically omit others.
Do they omit too much?
Propaganda
Highlight mistakes, overlook achievements
Justify current actions, hatred, wars
Who is creating our memory?
Who is writing history?
Whitewash past crimes
Spin historical record to serve their interest
Deliberate manipulation
Change the facts
What is the motive behind writing it?
confirmation bias
appeal only to evidence that support his own case and ignore any counter-evidence
National bias
pre-existing cultural and political prejudice
only look for what will support our prejudices
promote interests of nations and powerful elites
Achieving the God's-eye view is difficult
Problems with history writing and telling
CIA asset?
Extremists
But don't they have?
Special pleading
Mass-killings
Terrorist bombings
School shooters
Al-Qaeda
Jihadist
Suicide bombers
They have... Everyone country has
Why is it that they blame the whole muslim community as terrorists? and yet treat their terrorists as individuals.. as sick psychopaths?
double standards to excuse an individual or group
Religion
war between religions
Extremists actions
How do they know?
Propaganda
Conformational bias
Manipulation
Nation bias
prejudice
Which religion is 'the' one?
Strive to oust one another
Prove the other wrong
Confirmation bias
"O ye who believe!
Fight
those of the disbelievers who are near to you, and let them find
harshness
in you, and know that Allah is with those who keep their duty"
Qur'an, Sura 9:123

Islam is a violent terrorizing religion
study the religious texts in their proper context.
When these texts are not read in their proper textual and historical contexts
Take them out of their
context
Choose specific Quran verses
manipulated
distorted
Defame
circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be
fully
understood”.
“When you approach a city to fight against it, you shall offer it terms of peace. If it agrees to
make peace
with you and opens to you, then all the people who are found in it shall become your
forced labor and shall serve you
. However, if it does
not make peace
with you, but makes war against you, then you shall
besiege
it. When the LORD your God gives it into your hand, you shall
strike all the men in it with the edge of the sword
. Only the women and the children and the animals and all that is in the city, all its spoil, you shall
take as booty for yourself
; and you shall use the spoil of your enemies which the LORD your God has given you… Only in the cities of these peoples that the LORD your God is giving you as an inheritance, you shall
not leave alive anything that breathes
(Deuteronomy 20:10-17)
Bible
"Do not think that I have come to send peace on earth.
I did not come to send peace, but a sword.
I am sent to set a
man against his father, a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law
" (Matthew 10:34-35)
Deliberate Manipulation
Extremists manipulate Quran verses for their own goals
How do they know?
Confirmation bias
Deliberate manipulation
Nation bias
Interpret as violent
The ones in charge
Go back to the Quran
Islam is a violent religion
Out of context
Violent attacks
Confirm: Islam = Terrorism
Choose what to read and what to believe
How did they form and manipulate people's perception of Islam and Muslims?
Personal knowledge
Shared knowledge
Arts and Media
Tools for communicating a message
Books
TV shows
Movies
News reports
Talk shows
Language
Isis... Threat at home
Is the US next?
Are you being brainwashed?
Terrorism
Are there terrorists in your neighborhood?
Islam is a lie from the pit of hell
Radical Imams
Does Islam promote violence?
Chaos
Stoning
Female genital mutilation
Muslim countries
Women's rights
Oppression
Isis
Hamas
Boko haram
Hezbollah
We better wake up now, or we wake up dead
Problematic meaning
Vagueness
meaning depends on the context
Quran (Interpreted differently)
Ambiguity
Mislead people, ambiguous sentence/words --> understood differently
Irony
The religion of peace website
C
O
N
T
E
X
T
Unintentionally compare what you're reading to the name of the website. (Affects your perception)
Terrorist muslim attack... Vague?
This is against the law in Muslim countries.. Vague?
- High school student shoots ....
Talking about the whole community
Talking about 1 individual
Equivocation
You develop the idea that all muslims are terrorists
Female genital mutilation is done in Muslim countries
All muslim countries
Not true
75% of all GM occurs in Ethiopia
Christian country
Hasty generalization
Stereotype
Language affects the way we see things
Make assumptions about a group of people purely on the basis of their membership to that group
Exaggerate the negative features of a group and assumes they are possessed by
all
members of that group
Hasty generalization
Confirmation bias
Arab + Muslim = Terrorist
False analogy
2 things are alike in some aspects; alike in all other aspects
Influencing and Persuading
Emotionally laden language
While describing the incident
using the word 'Terrorist' (unfavorable negative feelings)
Troubled psychopath?
Women's inequality (negative feelings)
Loaded questions
You feel sorry for him
Does Islam promote violence?
Biased --> contains a built-in assumption
Emotion
Over sensationalized
Dramatic
Sensationalism
Biased
Rumors
Favors the exceptional over the ordinary
Glorification
Focusing on the suspect rather than what has happened
Keeps reminding you
Repetition
Women's inequality
4 wives
Sex slaves
Female genital mutilation
No driving
No traveling alone
Panic
Rage
You want to avenge the death
Fuels you with negative energy
9/11 "War against America"

-You are reminded with this every year
-Call for action
Focus on extreme countries/cases only.
However:
Indonesia: women are 100% equal to men
Turkey: More female representatives than in USA
Deliberate manipulation?
Confirmation bias?
Rationalization
Play on our emotions
Angers feminists, women, activists, etc.
Strong emotions
Not reason in an objective way
Attempt to justify sth with logical reasons, even if these are not appropriate
It's okay to kill muslims
It's okay to hate them
It's okay to discriminate against them
It's okay to hurt them
Aren't they terrorists?
Didn't they kill us?
Don't they hate us?
Reason
Perception
Fallacious reasoning
Hasty generalization

Special pleading

False analogy
Generalizing from insufficient evidence
double standards to excuse an individual or group
assuming that because 2 things are alike in some respects, they are alike in other respects
Some examples in extreme countries is not enough to generalize
look at other aspects
not all muslims are terrorists
why do we overlook the fact that some fight in the name of Christ or that Buddhist monks are slaughtering women and children in Myanmar
why do we conclude that Islam is violent and not the actions of the extremists?
it all depends on the people
Terror has no religion
Distorted perception
Biased perception
Selective perception --> confirmation bias
Shared knowledge
Shared ideology
Muslims are terrorists
Relate back to Abby and her mother
Not only happens in Religion
Abdel Fattah El-Sisi
Morsy and the Muslim Brotherhood
It is in the ruling party's benefit to shape our personal and shared knowledge to create and shape our ideologies to serve their propaganda
2 Anecdotes
How did they reach this conclusion?
How do they promote this conclusion and formulate the general public's perception of Islam?
References
Jon Stewart's Media Sensationalism Montage at The Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear. (n.d.). Retrieved December 22, 2014, from: Youtube
Dr.Phil "I'm Worried My Daughter Might Turn into a Terrorist" (July 18, 2014). (n.d.). Retrieved December 22, 2014, from: Youtube
Islamophobia: Melissa Boigon at TEDxGallatin 2013. (n.d.). Retrieved December 22, 2014, from: Youtube
Siddiqi, M. (n.d.). Bible and Terrorism. Retrieved December 22, 2014, from http://www.islam101.com/terror/bibleT.htm
Lagemaat, R. (2011). Theory of knowledge for the IB Diploma (Full-colour ed.).
TOK Presentation
Full transcript