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Cultural Profile: China
Transcript of Cultural Profile: China
The rectangular flag has a red field with five golden-yellow stars (each with five points) in the upper left corner. The star on the left is larger than the other stars.
The red color of the flag symbolizes revolution. The large star symbolizes the Communist Party and the smaller stars represent the people of China.
Religion The main religions are Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism.
Citizens of China may freely choose and express their religious beliefs, and make clear their religious affiliations Confucianism was the most influential Chinese religion.
It was founded by Confucius.
Confucianism was the state religion from the establishment of the Han Dynasty in 202 B.C. to the end of the imperial epoch in 1911.
Confucian teachings were the subject of civil service examinations for more than 2,000 years.
Confucianism maintains that people should embrace their station in life to preserve social harmony.
identifies five cardinal relationships between intrinsically superior and inferior beings.
Confucianism -Catholicism was introduced into China intermittently in the seventh century, but it had not spread widely.
-China has four million Catholics. Catholicism Taoism
-Taoism emerged in the 6th century B.C.
believed to have been founded by a man named Lao-tzu.
-began as a structured system of philosophical thought that only a few people practiced.
- later it became known as a communal religion.
- Its basic tenets stick to the universal value of reward for good behavior and punishment for bad behavior in the afterlife.
-believes in several gods that dispense with justice and transmits sacred revelations. Buddhism -Buddhism was introduced to China from India between A.D. 58-76 but only flourished in the 3rd century.
-founded by Siddharta Gautama, or Buddha, a contemporary of Confucius.
-believes that desire is the source of all pain and pain can be overcome by suppressing desire through meditation.
-Zen Buddhism teaches that enlightenment is attainable through the regular practice of meditation.
Currency Yaun 1 Chinese yuan = 0.1525 US dollars Language Cantonese, Xiang, Min, Hakka, Taiwanese, and Mandarin are very common languages in China.
Mandarin -Mandarin is the national dialect or the main language of China.
-Over 90% of Chinese people speak Mandarin, but also may very likely speak another dialect. Cantonese -Cantonese is the main dialect used in Hong Kong and in areas around it.
-It is different than Mandarin and can almost be considered another language Taiwanese Taiwanese is the dialect used in Taiwan in addition to Mandarin
Alphabet -If characters appear horizontally, they will be read left to right, in exactly the same was as English.
- If they are printed vertically, they are read top to bottom, starting from the right-most column and moving left.
-This means that vertically printed books will start from the "back", from the point of view of a Westerner, and each column of text will be read until the book finishes at the "front".
-Vertical text is common for shop signs and banners because each character is written inside an imaginary square.
-One exception for horizontal text, is that short phrases will occasionally be written right to left for stylistic or historical effect.
Economy • China has the fastest growing economy in the world with an average growth rate of 10% for the past 30 years. • In 2010 China became the world’s largest exporter •In 2011 China became the world’s top manufacturer, surpassing the US.
electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, textiles, iron and steel, optical and medical equipment are exported from china Natural resources: rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish Information Technology 747 million cell phone users 313.68 million main line telephone users 389 million internet users All radio stations and television stations are owned by the government. There are no privately owned companies. There are over 2,000 stations and channels. China is very technology advanced. Music Traditional Chinese music puts certain emphasis on each the five musical elements much differently than its Western counterpart. Chinese music also uses a different scale, using a five-tone scale rather than the eight-tone scale of Western music.
Chinese music is sung in the Chinese language.
Art folk arts, silk, calligraphy, pottery, sculpture, metal arts and papercuts Chinese papercuts were created around the first century in A.D. The Chinese invented paper, which was very important for papercuts. It first started in the Tang Dynasty. People then would hang them up to decorate windows, houses, clothes and even ladies hair. In these thin and fragile papercuts, they would create animals, aerobics, Buddha, opera faces and other subjects. Sculptures were made of many different materials: stone, jade, lacquer, wood, metal, clay, etc They weren’t only for admiring but they were used as everyday items like a wine bucket, mirrors, pottery, and pendants. A famous example is the sculptures of the Terra cotta warriors. They were buried with the body of an emperor to protect the emperor in his afterlife. Food -The Chinese tend to eat three good meals every day. -Use chopsticks for all meals, but spoons for soup. -Chinese way of eating is healthy and fulfilling, fights illness and prolongs life. -more than one type of main dish to be eaten with rice. A small tray is offered for every diner, and diners can put food in their rice bowls or on these trays. Restaurants - diners choose from several dishes on a revolving tray at the center of the table. - Hosts may give a welcome speech - Tipping in restaurants used to be an insult but now it is more common. - woman usually cook at home Family life -The average age for marriage is 25 to 30 year old.
-After being married, the couple may live with their parents for a little while. Then they will move into an apartment and they are only allowed one child. There are exceptions to the one child rule, but that is usually only where there is a labor shortage. (In rural areas)
- men are the most important in the family Men usually work and women usually work at home. The roles of the children are to do schoolwork and to ocationally help the mother with housework. Neighborhoods are busy if you are in the city and calm if you are in the rural areas. Dress Urban- Casual
Rural- Farm- like attire.
Modern- High-end fashion
silk jackets, colorful Climate North- Northern winters, from December to March, can be extremely cold Winters there, with temperatures dropping below freezing, can be as cold as the North. Central- The Yangtze River valley has long and humid summer with high temperatures from April to October. – Summer can also be wet and miserable. South- summer is a season of typhoons between July and September. . Precipitation averages 76 cm (30 inches) per year. Northwest- It gets hot in summer, dry and sunny. Precipitation averages less than 10 cm (4 inches) per year. Geography Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam Area: 9,596,961 sq km mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, & more. China has many natural resources. Gestures/ Manners -Chinese do not like to be touched by people they do not know.
-Chinese point with an open hand rather than one finger.
- Respectful distance is best when dealing with older people or those in important positions.
- In some regions of rural China, it is common for people to spit in public after clearing their throat.
-they wave all fingers with the palm of the hand facing down.
In China it is rude to call someone by their first name unless you've known them since childhood. Chinese sometimes don't smile or exchange greeting with strangers. Smiling or being friendly to someone you don't know well is sometimes considered rude and too familiar Holidays -The most important holiday of the year is the Chinese New Year, also known as Spring Festival. It begins on the first day of the first lunar month, and usually occurs one month later than the Gregorian calendar's New Year. It lasts for fifteen days.
- the first five days are the most important, and the Lantern Festival, which is the last of the fifteen days, is also a big part of the holiday.
Fire works, dragon costumes, lanterns and people are the main things of this holiday. -Tomb sweeping -known as the Qing Ming (Pure Brightness) Festival.
- held each year in early April.
-People come to the cemeteries to sweep tombs and offer sacrifices of food and flowers to the dead.
-burn incense and paper money and bow before the tombstones. -Dragon Boat Festival -held on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month.
-said to have been started to commemorate the death of Qu Yuan (340–278 BC)
- People eat zong zi (pyramid-shaped, sticky rice dumplings wrapped in reed or bamboo leaves) and drink xionghuang jiu (a kind of liquor believed to prevent illness).
-The dragon boat races are held mainly in the southern part of the country. As the gun is fired, racers in dragon-shaped canoes pull the oars harmoniously and hurriedly, speeding toward their destination. Their rowing is accompanied by the rapid beat of drums.
Demographics Literacy rate:
Population:1,336,718,015 Median age: male- 34.9 years
female- 36.2 years Life expectancy: male- 72.68 years
female- 76.94 years Education Education is very important to the Chinese and the parents work very hard to help their child do well. Students attend school five days a week for several hours. Chinese, English, and math are usually the most emphasized subjects in primary schools. Learning is done by memorization, mostly, also class room discussion, and computer- aided teaching. High school final exams are some of the hardest tests any student will have to take. Most young people in China can read and write. School is mandatory for younger children (about first grade) Other than that, most Chinese go to school because that is what they are taught to do.
Rural girls are least likely to be enrolled because they are needed at home.
Chinese students begin school at the age of six. After six years of primary school, they continue to three years of early secondary education and three years of upper secondary education. Schools are large. Entertainment favorite sports include soccer, table tennis, swimming, and badminton. Chinese play board games in homes and parks. Majiang is the most popular table game; most people know how to play it Many children play video games at internet cafes Fun Facts It is considered good luck for the gate to a house to face south Red is considered a lucky color in China. At one time wedding dresses were red. New Year's banners, clothing, and lucky money envelopes are still red.
Fortune cookies are not a traditional Chinese custom. They were invented in 1920 by a worker in the Key Heong Noodle Factory in San Francisco. Cricket fighting is a popular amusement in China. Many Chinese children keep crickets as pets Government Communist Party
(system of social organization in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party.) - President HU Jintao is the Leader of China. Elected for a five-year term and are eligible for a second term. October 1, 1949 -People's Republic of China established. 221 BC- unification under the Qin Dynasty
January 1, 1912- Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China Architecture City people typically live in small houses or large 6-8 story, apartments.
Some apartments are 20-30 stories tall and have lots more extra things to do. The larger, nicer apartments are much more exspensive though.
Rural homes are larger than urban apartments, though they may lack running water and other things. Rural homes may also not be as well established and cleanly Churches look very traditional.
Other buildings in the city have become very modern. Global Contributions I think that China has given the USA many things. But my favorite and what are important to me are the food, and technology. Chinese food is my favorite. Just think of how many Chinese restaurants we have in America and even around the world. Their food and culture is admired from around the world. My other favorite would be the technology. China has one of the biggest industries. They are very good at manufacturing goods such as phones, televisions, music players, cars, furniture, and toys. Without China the world would not be as advanced as it is today. Current issues One major current issue in China is the population growth. China recently has the highest population. With so many people, it is hard to find jobs and make a living. This leaves many people living in poor living conditions because they are poor from the lack of jobs. 1368-1644 A.D.:
During the Ming dynasty, painting, calligraphy, pottery and other arts increase and become more traditional and popular. 1839-1860:
- China and Western nations battle over trade issues. 1931-1945:
Japan invades the province of Manchuria. After Japan is defeated in World War II, civil war breaks out in China.
Mao Zedong establishes the People's Republic of China. Rivals belonging to the Nationalist Party move to Taiwan
plan to change China's economy and farming system fails. Millions of people die of starvation.
Richard M. Nixon becomes the first U.S. President to visit Communist China.
About 1 million students hold pro-democracy protests in Beijing. The uprising is crushed by the army.
China regains control of Hong Kong, which had been under British rule for 99 years.
The Three Gorges River Dam across the Yangtze is completed. It took 13 years to build.
Beijing gets prepared to host the Olympics, set for August 2008.
Timeline The chinese rent bikes instead of cars. Riding bike is a hobby of them also. Chinese kindergarden class Western China Political map of China China Traditional dance Traditional drums President HU Jintan