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IB Psychology Essay: Critical Thinking

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by

Janan Mostajabi

on 2 December 2016

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Transcript of IB Psychology Essay: Critical Thinking

The GRAVE Process...
Can the study be replicated? Are the data consistent? Inter-rater/ test-retest?
Reliability
"The results of the study may be applied to fields such as education and parenting in developing approaches to ban youth marijuana abuse, and in medicine for the development of curative drugs."
Can the results of an experiment be applied to the larger population?

- Sample too small?
- Animal to humans?
- Ecological validity?
By: Janan
IB Psychology Essay: Critical Thinking
G
eneralizability
R
eliability
A
pplication
V
alidity
E
thics
Generalizability
Example: Rosenzweig and Bennet (1972)
Sample: 2 groups of rats
"The results of the study may not be generalizable to humans, as the experiment was carried out with rats. However, a principle of BLOA states that
humans and animals are similar in terms of physiology.
This statement may justify the generalizability."
Example: the case study of H.M.
A longitudinal study (50 years)
Severe damage done to the brain
"This case study is not replicable, as it was not a controlled lab experiment. The experiment cannot be repeated due to practical and ethical issues. This reduces the reliability of the results, as we cannot be certain that the same results would be obtained if the study was repeated."
Application
Can the results be applied to firms, education, medicine, parenting,...?
Example: Ashtari et al. (2009)
The results showed that early marijuana use may cause damage to various areas of the brain.

Validity
Does the research have:
- Experimental validity? Does it measure what it claims to measure?
- Predictive validity?
- Ecological validity?
Example: Bouchard et al. (1990)
Results claimed that genes affect intelligence to some extent, however there were no controls over environmental factors.
" The results lack experimental validity, as the study was not a lab experiment. There wasn't full control over extraneous variables, and thus, other confounding variables, such as environmental factors, may have affected the results. Hence, clear causal relationship between genes and IQ can't be assumed."
Ethics
Does the experiment comply with the rules set by the APA and BPS?

- Informed consent?
- Confidentiality and anonymity?
- Right of refusal and withdrawal?
- Physical and psychological harm to participants?
- Debriefing?
- Deception?
- Animal welfare?
Example: Newcomer et al. (1999)
A self-selected sample were given doses of cortisol over 4 days. Informed consent was obtained.
"The experiment complied with ethical guidelines, as the participants gave informed consent. Additionally, the doses of cortisol were kept to a minimum (160 mg) to ensure that no physical or psychological harm was done. No deception was involved. However, a double-blind procedure was used, which is justified as it serves the purpose of the experiment."
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