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Cold War Mindmap
Transcript of Cold War Mindmap
Challenges to Liberalism
Related to Foreign
Policy: Cold War
Definition: The American Cold War foreign policy of containing the spread of communism by establishing alliances through trade and military alliances. The United States imposed this foreign policy to contain the spread of communism, created by the soviet union
Definition: a country’s foreign policy of acquiring additional territory through the violation of another countries sovereignty for reasons of defense, resources, markets, national pride, or perceived racial superiority.
Definition: Policy of both major powers aiming to deter the strategic advances of the other through arms development and arms build up.
Cold War Mind Map
Mark Guerrero and Nikki Bosch
To what extent is resistance to
Definition: International behavior or foreign policy that takes a country to the brink of war, pushing ones demands to the point of threatening military action
Definition: period of the Cold war in which major powers tried to lessen the tensions between them through diplomacy, arms talks and reductions, and cultural exchanges. All treaties were used during the detente were made for tensions to ease and lessen the threat for nuclear war by signing these treaties.
Alignment vs. nonalignment
Definition: countries forming alliances with either the US or the Soviet Union to gain political, economic and security benefits vs. countries whom did not form alliances with either; forming a voting bloc within the UN
Definition: Military and political struggles of people for independence from countries that have colonized or otherwise oppressed them
The Truman Doctrine was created in response to the containment policy; in which the US will intervene 'to keep free people free'. The US contained the Soviet Union through alliances, aid, etc. This act was shown in Iraq, US military was sent out to keep the innocent people of Iraq free from communist imposed policies.
The Marshall plan was also created by the US, an economic aid plan to to 'rebuild' Europe; providing money and resources. US provided aid for 17 European countries, thus gaining more loyalty.
Used to strengthen superpower's position, through spying. It was a key tool for expansionism.
Sphere of Influence
Superpowers seeked to expand their beliefs onto other territories it dominated.
A way to eliminate communists and expand American/capitalist beliefs. The "Red Scare" popularly known as "McCarthyism" after its most famous supporter, Senator Joseph McCarthy. The "Red Scare" was applied to the Americans fear that communism/ Soviets were everywhere; a result of espionage practiced between the two superpowers.
A way to get other countries on the capitalist side, therefore spread American values and beliefs.
Kept European countries under Soviet bloc because economic assistance was provided for them.
Division of Germany
Soviet way of containing US by dividing people by political and economic differences.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Communist/SU containment of the US by physically blocking off contact between East and West Berlin.
Figurative blockade between US and Soviet Union. Both countries contain the other.
Physical wall in which both countries contain the other. Anyone who tried to cross was killed.
Powerful tool for containment. Gave superpowers benefit over the other.
US involvement in Chile government. Caused a dictator to emerge.
Fought between Soviet-led Afghan forces against multi-national insurgent groups called the Mujahideen
In 1956, a nationwide revolt in Hungary against the government's soviet imposed policies. 300,000 protesters fought for freedom of speech and liberty. The Soviet Union sent in army tanks, killing 20,000 hungarian people; a fatal consequence of rebellion during this time.
Both countries became battlegrounds for United States and Soviet Union. Civilian and Military casualties arose from violent conflict.
Korea and Vietnam
Funneled weapons to Nicaraguan rebels to fight against the US.
Third party involvement, so superpowers do not have to make direct contact with one another, instead using another country to fight the war for them.
Political liberalization during the era of its domination by the USSR
Rooted by the fight between the two superpowers US and the Soviet Union.
Wars in Latin America, Central America, Africa, Middle East
Mutually assured destruction, works to deter powers from entering into direct conflict
SALT 1 and SALT 2
Canada in Cold War
Strategic arms limitation treaties, agreement to limit the number of missiles acquired, armed and aimed by the USSR and US.
Ping Pong Diplomacy
Exchange of ping pong players between the United States and China, marking a thaw in US-China relations.
Canada was responsible for helping US determining SU attack and defense.
France Dissuasion Policy
France developed weapons but used it as a defense from attack by any other country.
Nuclear Arms Race
Nuclear deterrent - set up weapons and stockpiled by both superpowers, but never launched them.
Aligning to Superpowers vs. Bandung Conference
Deter advance of superpower by being the first to land a man on the moon.
Countries that aligned with the superpowers, vs. those who attended the Bandung Conference, made up of 29 Asian and African countries who agreed to oppose the alignment with superpowers
Yugoslavia and Tito's Leadership
Yugoslavia aligning with communist government, then become a member of Non-Alignment movement under Tito.
Canada and Great Britain with the US.
Aligned themselves because of a mutual dislike of the Soviet Union.
Allied forces could see the WWII would end so they met at Yalta and and planned their remaining wartime actions and future for postwar Germany.
After Yalta - the Cold War
Soviet Union wanted Germany weakened, but Western European economy depended on a healthy and unified Germany.
US aid to postwar Europe had "strings attached" (tied aid). Soviet Union refused the aid ("dollar imperialism").
Stalinization - communism in all states (worldwide)
After Yalta - the Cold War
Anti-communist revolution in Hungary - denunciation of Stalin.
End of WWII, US and Soviet Union had no common enemies.
Both superpowers emerged from WWII than before
Rival between Truman (US) and Stalin (SU) over control of Europe and Asia.
Events, agreements, and conflicts that caused tensions to grow between the US and SU:
In 1955, the Warsaw Pact was created to protect capitalist countries against communist regression
positive effect on relationship between superpowers
negative effect on relationship between superpowers
The policy of expansion ultimately had a negative effect on the relationships between the two superpowers. Utilizing tools such as espionage and Americans embracing McCarthyism and espionage ultimately built a rivalry over the other superpower. The Marshall Plan and McCarthyism were mindsets that created a perceived sense of superiority over the USSR's ideology of communism. With both superpowers seeking to expand their Sphere of Influence and containing the other through espionage, bridges were ultimately burned between the two.
Similar to the policy of expansionism, containment also proved to have negative political effects between the two superpowers. The Iron Curtain, Berlin Blockade and Division of Germany were physical representations of the division between communism and capitalism; the east and west sides Europe. COMECON was the USSR's means of disconnecting itself with the USA, whereas the USA contained the USSR through the Warsaw Pact, the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. .
Connections between the conflicts of the cold war, and the conflicts today
Containment policies and conflict are still present since the cold war. Sphere's of influence have since been created by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin of Russia. Putin aims to extend his communist policies towards neighboring countries such as the Ukraine. This is similar to the previous conflict of containment during the cold war, when the soviets also imposed communism on the east side of Berlin.
The policy of brinkmanship only negatively affected relationships between the two superpowers. The Cuban Missile Crisis served as a point of catharsis between the political tensions of the USSR and the USA.
Deterrence was another policy of cold war strategy and that was detrimental to international relationships between the superpowers. The Space Race, MAD and the Nuclear Arms race especially served as evidence of the developed rivalry between USA and USSR.
The Romanian Revolution, occurring in 1989, marked the last 'ouster' of a Communist regime in a Warsaw Pact country; directly connected to the cold war in which the "Warsaw pact' was created.
In 1991, the Soviet coup d'état attempt was to take control of the country from Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev. The coup leaders were hard-line members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and were opposed to Gorbachev's reform program and the new union treaty that he had negotiated; which decentralised much of the central government's power. This conflict is a result of the soviet superiority regression from the cold war; as the belief for communist empowerment still lingers in todays society.
In 1989 The Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia was the end result of 41 years of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia, and the subsequent conversion to a parliamentary republic. As a contemporary example, this revolution signifies the lasting effect the soviet sphere of influence during the cold war had on countries until recent conversion to a democracy.
The USA and Soviet Union used Proxy Wars as a means of indirect conflict, negatively effecting international relationships between the two superpowers. Much of the liberation movements from the 1950s and 1980s were a means of superpowers utilizing the policy of containment through supporting the side that supported their ideology of capitalism or communism. .
The policy of detente served primarily to positively effect international political relationships between the two superpowers, especially through SALT 1 and SALT 2 by easing tensions.
Getting other countries involved and picking sides within the conflict between the two superpowers, ultimately resulted in a negative effect between the relationship and increased tensions that could have inevitably lead to nuclear mass destruction. Similarly to the Proxy Wars, aligning to support either communism or capitalism rooted in deeper conflict and tore down bridges.