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Transcript of Russian Revolution
Russo-Japanese War 1853-1856 1904-1905 •Alexander II was hated and was assassinated by revolutionaries in . Because of this, his son, Alexander III, cracked down severely on all forms of public resistance and brutally oppressed the Russian people.
•Nicholas II, the son of Alexander III, followed in his father’s footsteps when he became tsar in . Russia was defeated by France and Britain and allies after attempting to gain influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Russia was defeated by Japan after conflicting imperial ambitions and trying to secure ports in the Pacific Ocean. • Alexander II’s abolishment of serfdom after the Crimean War caused severe economic problems
• The cost of two failed wars crippled Russia's economy. 500 Rubles Bolshevik soldiers about to burn a portrait of the Tsar 1881 1894 March 8th - 12th March 12th-15th Petrograd Riots Intervention of the Duma Coup d'etat November 6th-7th Vladimir Lenin Civil War Anti-Bolsheviks Defeated Long Term Causes • Russia’s military was no match for industrialized Germany
• Russian armies were ill-led and ill-armed
• Enormous amount of causalities on Russia’s side
• The economy plummeted and there was a major food shortage The Immediate Cause March 8th Demonstrators marched through Petrograd (modern-day St. Petersburg, Russia’s capital) shouting “Peace and bread” and “Down with autocracy.” They were joined with crowds of industrial workers on strike and refused to leave the streets. March 10th They succeeded in shutting down all the factories. Some irate mobs destroyed police stations. Soldiers were ordered by the tsar to disperse the crowd and shoot if necessary. March 11th-12th In some encounters, the troops opened fire and mowed down the protestors. But a significant number of soldiers disobeyed orders and joined the side of the demonstrators. When the protests were still peaceful Chaos after many innocent people were killed by soldiers March 12th Tsar Nicholas II tries to dissolve the Duma (legislature) but they meet anyway and declared that they are taking government responsibility. March 15th The Duma established a provisional government and the Tsar stepped down from the throne. Growing Opposition of the Provisional Government Russia Japan 1905 His tough rule caused unrest that forced him to make concessions
As he gave in, he grew weaker
Was nicknamed Bloody Nicholas anti-semitism pogroms violent suppression of the 1905 Revolution execution of political opponents failed military campaigns 1825 1881 •Unarmed, peaceful demonstrators marched to the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II•They were shot down by soldiers of the Imperial Guard • Influenced the royal family after he “healed” their chronically ill son
• Became a personal advisor to the Tsarina and was said to have had an affair with her
• Alcoholic and sexually promiscuous
• Accepted bribes the crazy monk symbolic of tsar corruption The moderate Constitutional Democrats were responsible for establishing the provisional government and they were liberal-minded. They faced opposition from the more radical Soviets (councils of workers' and soldiers' representatives) The Bolsheviks (later called Communists) were a faction of the Soviets and were led by Lenin 1870-1924 Became a dedicated enemy of tsarist Russia in by 1887
Became a Marxist
Self-imposed exile to Switzerland
Assumed the leadership of the Bolsheviks Believed that the Bolsheviks should cause a violent revolution and throw off the capitalist system. After the March Revolution, Lenin secretly returned to Russia in hopes of beginning Russia's change to socialism
In his "April Theses" he rallied together the Russian people was a communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist, and leader of the Bolshevik Revolution • Lenin and the Bolsheviks led their forces (with the Red Guard) to the capital of Russia • They took over major government buildings without much bloodshed• They marched on the Winter Palace and easily overtook it• The provisional government was officially overthrown by the Bolsheviks The victorious Bolsheviks Red army vs. White Army Lenin announced the new Soviet government, the Council of People’s Commissars, with himself as its head RED The Bolshevik Red Guard was reorganized into the Red Army •The Red Army occupied and took over several territories that belonged to the former Russian Empire•Leon Trotsky helped the army to become a well-disciplined and formidable fighting force•Red secret police (Cheka) was formed for “revolutionary terror” and to destroy all opponents of the new regime•War communism through nationalizing industrial and other facilities and requisitioning the peasants’ produce WHITE A loose confederation of anti-Bolsheviks forces became the White Army •The White Movement consisted of liberals, pro-monarchists, warlords, conservatives, Allied troops, other socialists, etc. •The Red Army fought on many fronts: Siberia, Ukraine, the Baltic Region, Caucasus, etc.•The disunity of the White force and their inability to agree on a common goal (other than fight the Communists) weakened them Russia Leaves the World War ➢ Lenin’s peace did not last; soon, Russia lapsed into civil war ➢ Lenin promised peace, so once he was in power, he signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany to leave the World War Humiliating loss of Russian territory: eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland and Baltic provinces➢ The communists succeeded in retaining control of Russia Russia suffered many casualities and much destruction Gravesite of the murdered (by Soviets) imperial family Outcome of the Russian Revolution 1922 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is established confederation of Russia, Belorussia, Ukraine, and the Transcaucasian Federation
this new Communist state was the first to be based on Marxist values Corruption of USSR Animal Farm - George Orwell 1945 new government is just as bad as, if not worse than, previous tsarist rule
brings to light the corruption of the USSR Joseph Stalin Russia was transformed by the Bolshevik regime into a bureaucratically centralized state dominated by a single party. USSR was largely hostile to the Allied Powers because they assisted the Bolshevik's enemies during Civil War 1922-1991 Cold War World War II Present day Communism Stalin Era