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The Invention of the Airplane

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Shreela McFaddan

on 14 December 2012

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Transcript of The Invention of the Airplane

By: Shreela McFaddan The Invention of the Airplane Wegener, Peter P. "What Makes Airplanes Fly?; History, Science, and Applications of Aerodynamics." New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991. Bibliography 1.The Wright Brothers and their technology discoveries.
-The Wright Brothers were the first ones to figure out how to make a plane lift off of the ground and fly. This set the standard for future plane models and today’s planes. It is all based off of what the Wright Brothers discovered. They set the standard and the stage for how planes accelerate and how the wing of the plane is designed in such a way for it to lift off the ground. This allows for the act of flying and planes themselves to be successful. (1)
2. Size of Planes
-All planes are created for a certain purpose. Some are meant to carry passengers, and some are meant to carry cargo, cars, and/or FedEx shipments. All planes are created based on a standard of what they are purposed to carry. Knowing this allows for the plane to be built it a certain way in order to effectively carry out that purpose. (1) Standards Architectural Features: Airports, Runways, and Freeways.
Mode of interaction with project: Airports and runways are needed to land and store planes. Freeways are impacted and needed because there has to be a way to get to the airport in order to access a plane, so therefore the freeways and roads are needed for this. Architecture Energy and Fuel This graph explains the change in energy consumption of aircraft since they changed to H2 fuel. This shows how the improvements in energy and fuel sources changes the energy consumption. It relates to anything, as time goes, improvements are made, therefore they are better. (1) Overview and Thesis Commercial airlines should be used as the primary form of long-distance travel because they are cost effective, time efficient, and have proven to be a safe way to transportation. Wright Brothers Aeroplane Company. “A History of the Airplane.” Accessed September 6, 2012. http://www.wright-brothers.org/History_Wing/History_of_the_Airplane/History_of_the_Airplane_Intro/History_of_the_Airplane_Intro.htm Rolfe, Douglas, Alexis Dawydoff. Airplanes of the World, 1490-1962. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1962. How Stuff Works Incorporated. “How Airplanes Work.” Accessed September 6, 2012. http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/airplanes.htm My project idea is the invention of the airplane. I am fascinated with the art of flying and how such big chunks of metal actually get off of the ground and into the air. The first experiences of people trying to fly have existed for almost all of mankind’s existence. (1) The actual idea of the airplane has only been around for two centuries. The idea mainly started with humans observing that of nature and the birds. They then experimented with wings attached to themselves, and then in later years eventually came to the conclusion of creating a machine that has wings and flys. Today, we now have jets, and air crafts that are able to make flights all the way around the world and can carry up to about 525 passengers. (2) Historical Development Materials Carbon Fiber Allows for the plane to be lightweight and stronger than aluminum did in the past. Does not allow for cracks to be seen on the plane as well. [1] Acrylic Plastic Titanium Allows for a sturdy and durable window for the pilot as well as the passengers to see out of. [1] Allows for the engine to be light, but strong and durable. [1] Values In the creation of the plane, the people who are building the plane must value the creation and make sure they are building it to the correct standard, making sure each detail is as perfect as possible so the plane may fly smoothly. Also, during the creation of the plane, the people building the plane must value the purpose of the plane and what it will be carrying in order to ensure safety and that everything works properly to prevent crashes and damage. Controversy Controversy with the actual invention of the airplane is one that is not really present. There are not many who oppose this idea, and not a huge debate about whether or not it is a good invention or not. However, where the controversy arises is when the discussion of who the actual credit should go to for this invention is brought up. Most people commonly think of the Wright Brothers as the ones who discovered this invention. It depends on how you look at the first invention of the airplane, and what you consider to be the first invention. Some people consider the first flight to be the first invention and some people think of the actual first aircraft. Well if you are discussing who made the first flight, then the credit goes to Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier. However, if you are talking about the first actual aircraft, then the credit would indeed go to the Wright Brothers. (1) "Top 10 Invention and Discovery Controversies." Top Tenz. http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-invention-discovery-controversies.php (accessed October 4, 2012). "History of Airplanes." Oracle ThinkQuest Education Foundation. http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112389/airplanes.htm (accessed October 11, 2012). The Where, The When, and The Why Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. This is where the Wright Brothers first started to experiment with making gliders in attempt to create some of the first airplanes and flights. (1) 1899-1903. 1903 was the year that the Wright Brothers created “their first powered airplane.” 1903 was definitely one of the most critical years regarding the airplane because that is the year the Wright Brothers “successfully flew a plane with a person in it.” Cultural aspects dealing with the airplane have to do with the fact that it is the American way to create the next step to every invention. We are determined to discover and create. (1) The reason the Wright Brothers chose Kitty Hawk was due to the fact that they needed an area where “brisk, steady winds, open areas free from obstructions… and soft terrain upon which to land.” Kitty Hawk provided all of these things for them. Planes need all of these factors in order to fly successfully, so therefore this explains the reason behind choosing Kitty Hawk. (2) Battles, Stephanie. "Transportation Sector." Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/emeu/efficiency/ee_ch5.htm (accessed October 19, 2012). MDGanesan. "Case Study: Aircraft." Road2Hy. http://www.ika.rwth-aachen.de/r2h/index.php/Case_Study:_Aircraft (accessed October 19, 2012). Quantitative Data One piece of information I found out about the plane and it’s energy consumption is the a graph and webpage explaining the change in energy consumption of different aircraft since they changed to H2 fuel. This shows how the improvements in energy and fuel sources changes the energy consumption. It relates to anything, as time goes, improvements are made, therefore they are better. According to the Energy Information Administration, “Air freight continues to be the most energy-intensive mode of freight transportation. In 1985, air freight required 20 thousand Btu to move 1 ton 1 mile. By 1988, during an interval of growth/growth, this had climbed to 31 thousand Btu per ton mile. During the growth/recession interval, this grew more slowly to 32 thousand Btu per ton mile.” (1) Environmental Impact As far as the impact of the airplane on the environment goes, it all comes down to the fact that it burns a lot of fuel, therefore it pollutes the air. Some results of this are climate change and global dimming. This is just because of the mass amount of pollutants a turbo engine releases into the air. There have been some changes made in order to increase fuel efficiency, and create less polluting turbo engines, however, air travel has become more and more popular over the years, therefore the air pollution from aviation has actually increased by 87%. Some of the pollutants or things released into the air from an aircraft or Carbon Dioxide, and Oxides of Nitrogen, both of which result in climate change and can be harmful to the air. (1) Cultural and Political Factors Some of the impacts and influences that airplanes have on politics include the fact that it has allowed for cultures to easily intermix and learn about one another. It has also made world travel; which happens to be a very popular activity, pastime, or even lifestyle; possible. (1) The way that have airplanes have influenced politics is by the fact that the President can now better serve foreign countries, and actually travel there to talk with them in person, or vice versa. Air Force One is actually said to be one of the most “recognizable symbols of the President.” The airplane also impacted things such as wars. Without the bomber planes and things, the outcomes of different wars could have been very different. Airplanes have opened up a whole new door to the world. (2) Some things in need of consideration as solutions for the airplane include; How much would an aircraft pollute the air due to the amount of fuel it will burn? Many tests and experiments had to be conducted before General Electric Aviation built the first jet engine. As far as the political and cultural side of things, I do not think many concerns besides the questions of what the airplane would do to society and the political world were addressed. I am unable to find any information that is related to those solutions. Solutions Bibliography (cont.) Wikipedia, "Environmental Impact of Aviation." Last modified August 5, 2012. Accessed October 25, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_aviation. "Air Force One." The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/air-force-one (accessed October 25, 2012). "The History of Aircraft Engines." General Electric Aviation. http://www.geaviation.com/aboutgeae/history.html (accessed October 26, 2012). Industrial Revolution's Impact The airplane is an invention that was directly transformed by the Industrial Revolution due to mass production, the different uses of steel, and the creation of interchangeable parts.
"The IR spawned or transformed my invention." The airplane was invented around the early 1900’s and the Industrial Revolution took place in mid 1700’s. It has continued to be impacted due to mass production and how things are made. Airplanes and all the parts involved in the creation of an airplane are mass-produced. The relationship between the Industrial Revolution and the airplane relates to how the plane is today. There are thousands of planes that travel this world everyday. How did we get so may airplanes that are all similar? Because of the Industrial Revolution and the ability to mass-produce. If it weren’t for this revolution, planes as we know them today, would not exist. (1) Science and Physics The development of my invention required an understanding of classical physics.” The law of gravity relates to airplane due to the fact when an airplane takes off and cruises through the air, it is defying the law of gravity by making it possible to stay in the air without falling right back down by the use of force against it from the jets on the plane. (1) Contemporary Technology Overtime the airplane has changed due to the fact that it uses jets and has a greater ability to fly longer durations and at faster speeds. Airplanes also now are using biofuel which helps protect the environment. The aerodynamics and materials used for in airplanes has also changed because science has proved that some materials work better regarding aerodynamics. Most planes are made out of aluminum or metal, however, United Airlines recently announced the new Boeing Dreamliner aircraft, which is made of lighter composite materials. Many improvements have been made to the aircraft over the years. (1) "Industrial Revolution." Wikipedia . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution (accessed November 8, 2012). "Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_law_of_universal_gravitation "Aerodynamics." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerodynamics (accessed November 27, 2012). [1] Wegener, Peter P. What Makes Airplanes Fly?; History, Science, and Applications of Aerodynamics. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991. This helped me because it helped me understand the Wright Brothers and how they created the airplane and the wing design specifically. [1] Wegener, Peter P. What Makes Airplanes Fly?; History, Science, and Applications of Aerodynamics. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991. This helped me because it helped me understand the Wright Brothers and how they created the airplane and the wing design specifically. [1] vBulletin. Boise Epic Aerials. http://forum.skyscraperpage.com/showthread.php?t=166617 [1] [1] "Top 10 Invention and Discovery Controversies." Top Tenz. http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-invention-discovery-controversies.php (accessed October 4, 2012). [1] "History of Airplanes." Oracle ThinkQuest Education Foundation. http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112389/airplanes.htm (accessed October 11, 2012). [2] "Kitty Hawk- A Likely Location For Flying." National Park Service- U.S. Department of the Interior. http://www.nps.gov/wrbr/historyculture/kittyhawk.htm (accessed October 11, 2012). [1] Battles, Stephanie. "Transportation Sector." Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/emeu/efficiency/ee_ch5.htm (accessed October 19, 2012). [2] MDGanesan. "Case Study: Aircraft." Road2Hy. http://www.ika.rwth-aachen.de/r2h/index.php/Case_Study:_Aircraft (accessed October 19, 2012). [2] [1] Wikipedia, "Environmental Impact of Aviation." Last modified August 5, 2012. Accessed October 25, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_aviation. [2] "Air Force One." The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/air-force-one (accessed October 25, 2012). [1] "The History of Aircraft Engines." General Electric Aviation. http://www.geaviation.com/aboutgeae/history.html (accessed October 26, 2012). [1] "Industrial Revolution." Wikipedia . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution (accessed November 8, 2012). [1] "Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_law_of_universal_gravitation [1] Wegener, Peter P. What Makes Airplanes Fly?: History, Science, and Applications of Aerodynamics. New York: Springer, 1997. [2] Wright Brothers Aeroplane Company. “A History of the Airplane.” Accessed September 6, 2012. http://www.wright-brothers.org/History_Wing/History_of_the_Airplane/History_of_the_Airplane_Intro/History_of_the_Airplane_Intro.htm [1] MDGanesan. "Case Study: Aircraft." Road2Hy. http://www.ika.rwth-aachen.de/r2h/index.php/Case_Study:_Aircraft (accessed October 19, 2012). [1] "Aerodynamics." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerodynamics (accessed November 27, 2012).
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