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Transcript of National Education
Wong Chung Fai
Yu Ka Chun
Wong Hei Man The Reponse Comparison to Singapore National Education National Education in Hong Kong What is National Education? Called "Moral and National Education"by the Education Bureau of the CPC, it was to be a full implementation in all aspects of Education in schools in Hong Kong. Students Teachers Government Reasons for implementation Reasons Against During the Mid-Autumn Festival,
a parade was held from The Peak Galleria
to CY Leung's house. They shouted the slogan:
"I need critical thinking, not brainwashing!" National Day Another of several parades were held on national day, referred to as the day in black, to Golden Buahinia Square where the flag raising ceremony took place. The protesters dressed in all black Occupy Central Students held a 10 day long occupation of the government offices in Central, aiming to force the attention of Chief Executive CY Leung. Over 100,000 people participated, and after 10 days Chief Executive Cy Leung announced the cancellation of the 3 year implementation. Hunger Strike 3 students named: Kaiser, Lai Lai Wong, and Ivan Lam, joined the 72 hour hunger strike during the Occupy Central movement. Propaganda Stations Schools and students set up over 80 propaganda stations and collected over 800,000 signatures over 8 days.
Over 700 leaflets were handed out in just the first hour which helped raise awareness among the parents In 2011, HKPTU had been conducted a survey about National Education and received 2383 Questionnaires. It shows that 70% of teachers oppose National Education as they worry this subject is brainwashing. Hunger Strike Over 20 members of the Staff Association Executive Committee of City University of Hong Kong joined the hunger strike which was lasted for 2 weeks. It was lasted for 12 to 48 hours depend on each person. Mr. Han, who is a 63 year-old retired teacher and member of HKPTU, joined the hunger strike lasted for 171 hours (7 days) which is the longest time record of hunger strike. The vice chairman of HKPTU joined the hunger strike which was lasted for 4 days. Ho Chi Kwan, who is an over 60 year-old former vice professor of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University of Social Sciences, joined hunger strike lasted for 48 hours. National Education Concept Group Reasoning for disapproval National education overlapped with Chinese History, Chinese Literature, General Education, and Liberal Arts:
Does not broaden a students horizons
waste of time and resources for all parties, e.g. students, teachers, and schools The government does not consider ethnic minorities or the diversity within Hong Kong The workload is too high and too much is demanded of both student and teachers, Hong Kong schooling is already a daunting task, National Education is too excessive. It is a form of brainwashing. Created directly by the Chinese Communist Party, we must educate the future generations with more depth and cultural awareness. National Education aims to instill patriotism and traditional Chinese values. Leaves out vital "sensitive" topics that students learn in school and some information can be untrue or fictionalized, only appeals to our sense of nationality and does not benefit us in any academic way. Initially Chief Executive CY Leung and the Education Bureau attempted to please Beijing, but following harsh criticism and mass protest they eventually backed down after a prolonged 1 and a half year period. Singapore System National Education was set up in 1997 to instill a sense of nationality in the youth and teach the history of Singapore.
Many teachers are highly motivated when teaching national education, as it is a sense of pride. Schools in Singapore do not teach personal identity, but rather national identity and the National Education is incorporated into all subjects and lessons. Education is revolved around teaching morals, values, and "Social Cohesion" Hong Kong Schools Private English School - Part government subsidized English/Chinese medium schools, where typically the local curriculum is taught. International School - taught in exclusively English, aimed at foreign students or local students aiming to learn the UK, American, or Australian curriculum in preparation for going to school in that country. Local School - taught in Chinese/English for the local Hong Kong curriculum, separated into 3 classes. Contrast:
National Education cannot be implemented in Hong Kong because Hong Kong enjoys relatively high austerity compared to Singapore. There is much diversity among the students and population in Hong Kong, which would lead to issues and there is not a universal sense of being "Chinese" among Hong Kong citizens. What is a "Social Movement"? It is a organized activity that promotes change and reform or discourages it.
They focus on a specific issue, and involve groups of like minded people.
An example is "anti-national education" Types of Social Movements Alternative The limited social movement
Target is specific people
Help some people change their lives
E.g. Industrial social movement
Help the worker to strive for welfare Reformative The limited social movement
Target is everyone
“The environmental movement seeks to interest everyone in protecting the natural environment.” Society : the basics / John J. Macionis
E.g. Green Peace Redemptive The radical social movement
Target is specific people
Help people rescue their lives
E.g. alcoholics anonymous Revolutionary The radical social movement
Most extreme of all
Working for major changes of an entire society
Use the radical means to strive for what they want
E.g. anti national education Why do they occur? Deprivation Theory:
People who feel deprived so they want to organize a social movement to improve (or defend) their conditions
But the theory is difficult to explain as to why the groups that form social movements do when other people are also deprived. Mass Society Theory
Socially isolated people reach out to gain a sense of belonging and importance Culture Theory
Social movements do not depend on material resources and political power, but also when people who share a same culture realize they cannot achieve their goals when acting alone. Structural-Strain Theory
Six factors that encourage social movements:
1. Structural conduciveness - When people believe their society has serious problems.
2. Structural strain - People begin to experience deprivation when society fails to meet their expectations.
3. Growth and spread - Forming a well organized social movement with clear statements.
4. Precipitating factors - Discontent that may have pre-existed.
5. Mobilization for action - Like minded people share a concern and are ready to take action.
6. Lack of social control - Success depends on government and military response. Political-Economic Theory
When a capitalistic society fails to meet the markets demands, e.g. the unemployment and homeless issue in Hong Kong The aims of this program were to increase and improve Beijing-Hong Kong ties, and furthermore to give those living in Hong Kong a better idea of life and social issues in China, and the "Chinese way of thinking" Due to Hong Kong being a previously British territory up until 1997, China wanted to give those in Hong Kong a sense of Chinese nationality once again.
The best way to do that was through education, especially starting from childhood. Created a sense of fear within Hong Kong.
Was dubbed as a form of brainwashing by the education community.
Controversy over the methods and doubts over the curriculum promoted a bitter and long dispute over the implementation of the Moral and National Education program.
The increased workload was deemed excessive in all aspects, funding, teachers work load, and student work load.