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Transcript of Leukemia
By: Tazahir Nafis, Ahmed Soliman, Faaiz Rabbani
Causes of Leukemia
Reducing The Risk of Getting Leukemia
What is Leukemia?
-Having previous radiation therapy
-Being exposed to high levels of radiation (Benzene)
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"Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results ProgramTurning Cancer Data Into Discovery." Leukemia. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2013.
-Cancer of the blood cells
-Starts in bone marrow
-Be aware of family history
-Discuss concerns with a doctor
-Discuss risks and benefits medical images.
-Be aware of workplace surroundings and follow safety regulations
-Do not smoke.
Diagnosis of Leukemia
Effects on the Body
- Causes Bone Marrow to Produce unusual white blood cells in large amounts.
Unusual White Blood Cells?
unusual white blood cells
are circle shaped cells that are the colour
Leukemia mostly occurs in children
Responsible for 25% of childhood cancers
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia is most common in children
- Several Varieties which can also effect the lymphoid system
- White blood cells fight off things like disease, so if you do not have them this would severely weaken your immune system.
Forms of Treatment
- Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent or it may aim to prolong life or to palliate symptoms.
- Stem cell transplant is the transplantation of stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood. Most often performed on patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia.
Check for swollen Lymph nodes
Complete Blood Count
Bone Marrow Biopsy
Removing tissues to look for cancer cells
in the bone marrow
X - Rays
Checks for swollen lymph nodes in the body
Picture below shows Leukemia in the bone marrow
Remove cerebrospinal fluid
Then the doctor checks the fluid for Leukemia cells
- Cells can still do some work of normal cells
-Gets worse slowly
-No major symptoms
Types of Chronic Leukemia
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
- This cancer starts in white blood cells (Lymphocytes)
- Invades the blood
- Builds up slowly
Bleeding and Bruising
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)
Cannot work like normal white blood cells
- Starts in bone marrow (blood making area)
- Invades blood
- Invades rest of the body
- Builds up slowly
Acute Lymphoblastic leukemia
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Facts about Leukemia
Symptoms and Age groups
56% of patients survive after 5 years of being diagnosed
An estimated 48,610 new leukemia cases were reported in 2013
An estimated 23,720 deaths have been reported in 2013 because of leukemia
Chronic Leukemia is common in adults
Number of Deaths
Leukemia in Elders
Chances of Developing Leukemia
Acute Myeloid Leukemia is common for elderly patients
Average age of 66 years
AML is uncommon under 45
It is estimated that in 2014:
3,300 Canadian men will be diagnosed with Leukemia, and 1500 will die from it
2,500 Canadian women will be diagnosed with Leukemia and 1,100 will die from it
Changes in Rates Over Time
For the last 10 years:
The rates of leukemia cases have been rising about 0.1% each year
Death rates have been decreasing about 0.1% each year
- Easily sick
Small cuts= large loss of blood
- Immature white blood cells multiply constantly (Mitosis) and are overproduced in the bone marrow.
- Causes damage and death to cells by crowding out normal cells in the bone marrow, and by spreading (infiltrating) to other organs.
- Also by spreading (infiltrating) to other organs.
- Characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells
Pretty much the same as Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Interferes with red blood cell development
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Radiation therapy is usually given to the patient by a machine that focuses a radiation beam on the body parts being treated. The most common machine used is called a linear accelerator.
Radiation therapy damages healthy cells along with the cancer cells, and this damage can cause side effects.