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Cell Organelles

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Mikaela Palma

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Cell Organelles

Cell Organelles Mikaela Palma Animal Cells Prokaryote vs.
Eukaryote Prokaryote vs.
Eukaryote AP Biology - 3rd Period Plant Cells Translates the nucleotide sequence of mRNA molecules into a polypeptide chain. In other words, they manage protein synthesis and assemble proteins.
Made up of a large subunit and a smaller subunit attached on a strand of mRNA.
Can be free ribosomes, attached to the ER, or inside certain organelles. Ribosomes Plant vacuoles have many functions:
Storage of toxic by-products and waste products.
Structure: Vacuoles grow as the cell grows. As the vacuole takes in water, the vacuole swells.
Turgor pressure: water pressure which increases when the plant cell wall resists the swelling.
Reproduction: Pigments are contained in vacuoles. These red, blue, and purple anthocyanins pigments help attract animals, which assist in pollination and seed dispersal.
Catabolism: Vacuoles can contain some enzymes that hydrolyze stored seed proteins into monomers. These monomers are building blocks and sources of energy.
Contractile Vacuoles: Get rid of excess water. It enlarges as water enters and then contracts, which forces the water out of the cell through pores. Vacuoles Supports the plant cell.
Located outside the plasma membrane.
Determines the shape of the cell.
Made up of a layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane (which is absent in some bacteria.) Cell Wall Contains most of the cell’s DNA.
Where gene expression begins.
It is the location of the DNA and RNA replication.
DNA is transcribed into RNA.
Contains the nucleus. Nucleus Place where ribosomes begin to be assembled from RNA and proteins. Nucleolus Ribosomes are attached to the outer surface of the membrane.
These proteins become attached when they synthesize proteins meant for change in the RER.
A protein enters the RER if it has a specific amino acid sequence that signals the ribosome to attach to the RER.
Then, proteins are chemically altered to change their functions and to chemically “tag” them for delivery to a specific place.
The RER takes part in moving these proteins to other places in the cell. The proteins are transported in vesicles that separate from the ER.
Most membrane-bound proteins are created in the RER. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) It is connected to parts of the RER but unlike the RER, it does not have any ribosomes attached to it. Also, it has more of a tubular structure.
The SER:
Is responsible for the chemical changes of small molecules taken in by the cell.
It is the site for glycogen degradation in animal cells.
It is the site for the synthesis of lipids and steroids. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) Convert the chemical energy of energy-rich molecules into ATP (adenosine triphosphate.)
They have two membranes.
The outer membrane has large pores, and most things have the ability to pass through it.
The inner membrane separates the biochemical processes from the cytosol. Moreover, it’s structure is folded into structures cristae. The fluid within the inner membrane is called the mitochondrial matrix. Mitochondria Made up of:
Cisternae (flattened membranous sacs) that are piled up
Small membrane-enclosed vesicles.
The Golgi Apparatus:
Concentrates, packages, and sorts proteins before they are sent to their destinations.
Adds some carbohydrates to proteins.
It is where some polysaccharides for the plant cell wall are synthesized.
The cis region is nearest to the nucleus, the trans region is closest to the plasma membrane, and the medial region is between them. Golgi Apparatus A type of plastid (used for the storage of pigments, carbohydrates, lipids, or proteins) that has chlorophyll (a green pigment) and is the site of photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis is an anabolic process that converts light energy into chemical energy.
Has two membranes.
Have thylakoids (series of internal membranes that look like stacks of flat, hollow discs. Each stack is a granum.) The fluid surrounding the thylakoids is the stroma (where carbohydrates are synthesized.) Chloroplast Consists of phospholipid bilayers with proteins.
Functions:
It acts as a selectively permeable barrier that lets specific substances from entering or exiting the cell. With that said, the plasma membrane maintains homeostasis.
Communicates with adjacent cells and receiving signals from the environment.
Contains proteins that bind and adhere to a surface or adjacent cells.
Contributes to the cell shape. Plasma Membrane Tiny, membrane-surrounded droplets that transport substances between the endomembrane system and plasma membrane. Vesicle Made out of two lipid bilayers that are perforated by thousands of nuclear pores.
The pores regulate the traffic between the two lipid bilayers by regulating what leaves and enters the nucleus, which lets the nucleus regulate its information-processing functions.
Separates DNA transcription from translation. Nuclear Envelope Jelly-like substance that is made up of mostly water.
It separates the nucleus from the cell membrane.
Filled with microtubules that make up the cytoskeleton and other organelles. Cytoplasm Organelles of: Organelles of: Bundles of microtubules.
Organize the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Centrioles Jelly-like substance that is made up of mostly water.
It separates the nucleus from the cell membrane.
Filled with microtubules that make up the cytoskeleton and other organelles. Cytoplasm Ribosomes are attached to the outer surface of the membrane.
These proteins become attached when they synthesize proteins meant for change in the RER.
A protein enters the RER if it has a specific amino acid sequence that signals the ribosome to attach to the RER.
Then, proteins are chemically altered to change their functions and to chemically “tag” them for delivery to a specific place.
The RER takes part in moving these proteins to other places in the cell. The proteins are transported in vesicles that separate from the ER.
Most membrane-bound proteins are created in the RER. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) It is connected to parts of the RER but unlike the RER, it does not have any ribosomes attached to it. Also, it has more of a tubular structure.
The SER:
Is responsible for the chemical changes of small molecules taken in by the cell.
It is the site for glycogen degradation in animal cells.
It is the site for the synthesis of lipids and steroids. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) Made up of:
Cisternae (flattened membranous sacs) that are piled up
Small membrane-enclosed vesicles.
The Golgi Apparatus:
Concentrates, packages, and sorts proteins before they are sent to their destinations.
Adds some carbohydrates to proteins.
It is where some polysaccharides for the plant cell wall are synthesized.
The cis region is nearest to the nucleus, the trans region is closest to the plasma membrane, and the medial region is between them. Golgi Apparatus These contain special digestive enzymes called hydrolases.
They break down:
Materials that enter the cell.
Old or non-functioning organelles.
They are sites where macromolecules are hydrolyzed into their monomers.
They are made by the Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes Convert the chemical energy of energy-rich molecules into ATP (adenosine triphosphate.)
They have two membranes.
The outer membrane has large pores, and most things have the ability to pass through it.
The inner membrane separates the biochemical processes from the cytosol. Moreover, it’s structure is folded into structures cristae. The fluid within the inner membrane is called the mitochondrial matrix. Mitochondria Made out of two lipid bilayers that are perforated by thousands of nuclear pores.
The pores regulate the traffic between the two lipid bilayers by regulating what leaves and enters the nucleus, which lets the nucleus regulate its information-processing functions.
Separates DNA transcription from translation. Nuclear Envelope Contains most of the cell’s DNA.
Where gene expression begins.
It is the location of the DNA and RNA replication.
DNA is transcribed into RNA.
Contains the nucleus. Nucleus Place where ribosomes begin to be assembled from RNA and proteins. Nucleolus Made out of two lipid bilayers that are perforated by thousands of nuclear pores.
The pores regulate the traffic between the two lipid bilayers by regulating what leaves and enters the nucleus, which lets the nucleus regulate its information-processing functions.
Separates DNA transcription from translation. Nuclear Envelope Consists of phospholipid bilayers with proteins.
Functions:
It acts as a selectively permeable barrier that lets specific substances from entering or exiting the cell. With that said, the plasma membrane maintains homeostasis.
Communicates with adjacent cells and receiving signals from the environment.
Contains proteins that bind and adhere to a surface or adjacent cells.
Contributes to the cell shape. Plasma Membrane Translates the nucleotide sequence of mRNA molecules into a polypeptide chain. In other words, they manage protein synthesis and assemble proteins.
Made up of a large subunit and a smaller subunit attached on a strand of mRNA.
Can be free ribosomes, attached to the ER, or inside certain organelles. Ribosomes Tiny, membrane-surrounded droplets that transport substances between the endomembrane system and plasma membrane. Vesicle Plant vacuoles have many functions:
Storage of toxic by-products and waste products.
Structure: Vacuoles grow as the cell grows. As the vacuole takes in water, the vacuole swells.
Turgor pressure: water pressure which increases when the plant cell wall resists the swelling.
Reproduction: Pigments are contained in vacuoles. These red, blue, and purple anthocyanins pigments help attract animals, which assist in pollination and seed dispersal.
Catabolism: Vacuoles can contain some enzymes that hydrolyze stored seed proteins into monomers. These monomers are building blocks and sources of energy.
Contractile Vacuoles: Get rid of excess water. It enlarges as water enters and then contracts, which forces the water out of the cell through pores. Vacuoles Size Ribosomes Prokaryote Eukaryote 10-100 Mm larger 80s
Crytoplasm and attached to rER 1-10 Mm smaller (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr 70s
Only in cytoplasm DNA Not in the nucleus
1 circular chromosome and 4 plasmids In the nucleus.
associated with protein, many linear chromosomes.
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