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Emile Durkheim: Education: Its nature and its role
Transcript of Emile Durkheim: Education: Its nature and its role
Education is then only the means by which society prepares within the children the essential conditions of its very existence. Age of enlightenment Science was developing Social Change Education Happiness Education Customs and Ideas John Stuart Mill: "all that we ourselves do and all that
do for us to the end of bringing us
closer to the perfection of our nature Kant: " " the end of education is to develop, in each individual,
all the perfection of which he is capable" Perfection: has often been said, the harmonious development of all human faculties. To carry to the highest point that can be reached all the capacities that are in us, to realize them as completely as possible, without their interfering with one another. Durkheim It is not wholly attainable;for it is in contradiction
to another rule of human behavior, which has us concentrate on a specific, limited task. We can not be all made for one thing only. We are a combination of things like feeling, reflection or action. Thus we see that perfect harmony can not be presented as the final end of conduct and education Utilitarian Definition: happiness is an essential subjective thing that each person appreciates in his own way James Mill "to make the individual an instrument of happiness for himself and for others" Thus we see that the end of education is undetermined, left to individual fancy. Spencer: the condition of happiness are those of life. Complete happiness is the complete life. If we say that the standard of life, like the English, is the minimum below which it does not seem to us that we can consent to descend, varies indefinitely according to conditions, milieu, and the times. The general criticism that all these definitions face is that they all ASSUME that there is an ideal, perfect education, which applies to all men indiscriminately; and it is this education, universal and unique that the theorist tries to define. Greece and Rome History Today between yesterday and today trained the individual to subordinate himself blindly to the collectivity tries to make the individual an autonomous personality Because of the changes of education from one thing to another over the years then it can be said that the fact is not the ideal; that if education has varied, it is because men have mistaken what education should be..... Or mistakes have been made concerning either the end that it is to persue or the means of attaining it. Society exercises an irresistible influence on individuals. it is idle to think that we can rear our children as we wish. There are customs to which we are bound to conform. Our entire history has left its traces in customs and ideas. thus, how can the individual pretend to reconstruct, through his own private reflection, what is not a work of individual thought? He is not confronted with a "tabula rasa" on which he can write what he wants, but with existing realities. He can act on them only to the extent that he has learned to understand them, and he can understand them only if he studies them.
It appears that to establish the preliminary notion of education, to determine historical observation is indispensable. Education for Durkheim He thinks that education is one way from adult to youth Generation of adults and one of youth, in interaction an influence exercised by the first on the second
(it remains for us to define the nature of this influence.) Education is One manifold there are as many different kinds of education as there are different milieux in a given society. It also vary with social class and even locality. There are no people among whom there is not a certain ideas, sentiments and practices which education must include in all children indiscriminately, to whatever social category they belong to. Thus each society sets up a certain ideal of man, of what he should be, as much from the intellectual point of view as the physical and moral; that this ideal is, to a degree, the same for all the citizens; that beyond a certain point it becomes differentiated according to the particular milieux that every society contains in its structure. It is this ideal that is the focus of education The focus of education is to arouse in the child a certain number of physical and mental states that the society to which he belongs considers should not be lacking in any of its members. Consequences of the preceding definition:
The social Character of Education Human Beings Individual being the mental states that apply only to one depending on personal lives. The system of ideas, sentiments and practices influenced by religious beliefs, moral beliefs, practices, traditions and collective opinions Social Being The end of education is to constitute this being (both parts) in each of us.
Education is not limited to developing the individual organism in the direction indicated in its nature, but also to elicit the hidden potentialities that need only be manifested. It creates in man a new being. Creative Quality is a special prerogative of human education. It can foster (in animals) the development of certain instincts, but such training does not initiate a new life. It facilitates the play of natural functions, but create nothing. By contrast, among men the aptitudes of every kind that social life presupposes are much too complex to be able to be contained. They can not be transmitted from one generation to another by way of heredity. It is through education that the transmission is effected. Education answers social necessities above all. If not for society, then to satisfy the vital necessities, sensation, experience and instinct would suffice as they suffice for animals (as Rousseau said), but man has known the thirst for knowledge only when society has awakened it in him, and society has done this only when it has felt the need of it. Physical Qualities Its necessity is determined according to the social milieu and the times they lived in. Sparta Harden the limbs to fatigue for WAR Athens Making bodies beautiful to the sight. (no war) Times of Chivalry agile and supple form to make warriors.
(different kind of war) Today Hygienic end After what we said it might seem that the individuals were submitting to an insupportable tyranny, but in reality they are themselves interested in this submission. Historically The fact is that the morality stands in close relationship to nature of society, since it changes when society change. This is because it results from life in common. So the control we practice over our more basic inclinations is one of the distinctive traits of the human beings, as well as, language.
Language has allowed us to raise ourselves above pure sensation and it is, in the first degree, a social thing. Human wisdom accumulates unlimitedly which raises man above the beast and above himself. It is only possible through society. For in order that the legacy of each generation may be able to be preserved and added to others, it is necessary that there be a moral personality which lasts beyond the generations that pass, which binds them to one another: it is society. The influence that society exerts on him, notable through education, does not at all has as its objective to repress him, on the contrary, its objective is to make him truly a human beings. No doubt, he can grow thus only by making an effort but this power is one of the most essential characteristics of man. The Role of The State in Education It was said that the State should be limited to serving as an auxiliary to, and as a substitute for families. Society is interested in all aspects of educating the youth so it is up to the State to remind the teacher constantly of the ideas, the sentiments that must be impressed upon the child to adjust him to the milieu in which he must live in.
on the other hand, "One can believe that scholastic progress is easier and quicker where a certain margin is left for individual initiative but the principle of intervention could not be disputed. Schools should not be the things of one party and the teacher is remiss if he uses his authority at his disposal to influence his pupils in accordance with his own preconceived opinions, however justified they may appear to him." The role of the State is to outline the essential principles, to have them taught in its schools; to see that nowhere are children left ignorant of them; that everywhere they should be spoken of with respect which is due them. There is in this connection an influence to exert which will perhaps be all the more efficacious when it will be less aggressive and less violent, and will know better how to be contained within wise limits. The Power of Education
The Means of Influence Fontenelle: " neither does good education make good character, nor bad education destroy it." Helvetius "all men are born equal and with equal aptitudes; education alone makes for differences." Locke and Helvetius believed that education does not make man out of nothing but it is applied to predispositions already made. The predispositions are all vague and general except instinct. Brain:" the son of a great philosopher does not inherit a single word; the son of a great traveler can be surpassed in geography by the son of a miner at school." The future is not strictly predetermined by our congenial constitution. Between the vague potentials of man at birth and the well defined character the distance is huge. It is this distance that education has to make the child travel. Guyau (psychologist) has compared education to hypnotic suggestion. Hypnotic Suggestion Education 1- The subject/ student is characterized by exceptional passivity. The mind is like a "tabula rasa", with minimum resistance. 2- The authoritarian/ teacher will influence the subject and indicate that refusal to obey is not even considered. Herbart says that when education is patient and continuous, it will proceed slowly in a well defined direction towards success. The Authority of the Teacher comes from He must have the will.
It implies confidence. He must really feel the authority that he will transmit. It is not from outside that the teacher can hold his authority, it is from himself. He must believe in the importance of his task. teacher is the interpreter of the great moral ideas of his time and of his country. Liberty VS. Authority "to be free is not to do what one pleases; it is to be master of oneself; it is to know how to act with reason and to do one's duty." To Wrap up : Emile Durkheim thinks that the State always wants the good of the people (no corruption) so it should have all the power. UTOPIA.
As for teachers, he assumes that teaching is their calling and their ultimate goal. In contrast, John Dewy's "My Pedagogical Creed" , He believes education works when there is an international relationship between the individual and the environment."
The education for Dewy is for living not a preparation of future living. That is why he believes that there should be moral training first and schools should be as a form of community.
Education must be conceived as a continuing reconstruction of experience. Durkheim
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Sherine El Alaily