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Evolution & Classification

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Jennifer Sweet

on 14 April 2016

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Transcript of Evolution & Classification

In our last unit of genetics, we learned how traits are inherited from parents.

We also learned how parents can birth offspring with varying traits.

These two concepts are very important as we proceed forward with our new unit!
ev
ol
ut
io
n

intro to evolution video
story of life
It’s easy to see that individual organisms change over time. Organisms go through life cycles. An oak tree starts life as an acorn, becomes a seedling, and grows into an adult tree that produces its own acorns. Organisms change in other ways. If you lift weights, your muscles will grow stronger.

Such examples are of individual organisms changing during their lifetimes.

So, why do populations of a species evolve? How does it happen? To understand how evolution works, we need first to consider the raw material on which evolution works: the
natural range of variation
in the traits within a population.

One source of variation in a species comes from the process of sexual reproduction. Parent organisms produce offspring that are slightly different from themselves. Those offspring are also slightly different from each other. A second source of variation results from mutation. Movies and comic books thrive on the idea that a mutation is a drastic change that gives an organism amazing powers, but real mutation is actually much less noticeable. A mutation is a change in an organism’s genetic makeup that leads to a new trait. For a thousand generations, a flower species might produce only red blooms. Then, because of a mutation, one individual in the species might produce white blooms. That change is the result of a mutation, a slight-change in the genes that produce bloom color.
Many mutations are harmful to an individual’s survival, and some have no effect. Some mutations, however, give an individual an advantage over other individuals of its own species. An individual that has a helpful mutation is more likely to survive to reproduce than individuals who lack the helpful mutation. A trait that increases the chances that an organism will survive and reproduce is called an
adaptation
. The adaptation is then likely to be passed on to at least some of the individual’s offspring.

the different phenotypes and genotypes in a group of organisms
a random change in DNA
Humans that lived millions of years ago did not always have thumbs.

At some point, there was variation in a population of organisms ... those with opposable thumbs and those without.

Where did this adaptation/variation come from?

What do you suppose happened next?
New vocabulary word:
natural selection:
Natural selection is the survival and reproduction of those organisms best adapted to their surroundings.
Steps of natural selection:
1. Overproduction of offspring.
2. Variation in traits.
3. Struggle to survive.
4. Successful reproduction.
http://www.techapps.net/interactives/pepperMoths.swf
Says who?
Charles Darwin
http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/society/schools/keystage1-2/darwin.aspx
http://www.brainpop.com/science/ecologyandbehavior/naturalselection/
ENd of the story...
Once organisms adapt to their environment with their own unique traits, they mate with other organisms with the same traits.
Over time organisms that can ONLY mate with organisms of their kind become separate species.
but how do we know this?
Lots of
evidence

suggests that most organisms (or animals) come from a
common ancestor
.
"Weeble island" Lab
reflection:
1. how did this lab model the process of natural selection?

2. how will the weeble island population change over time?
The best evidence for evolution:
Fossil Evidence!
the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the past
let's take a look at some..
.
the history of life as documented by fossils
How do fossils work?
Plants & Animals get stuck in sand and mud and are covered in sediments.
The fossil rock anthem
Thus, as we dig deeper into the ground, the oldest rocks are on the bottom and newest on top.
This solidifies and continues over again.
fossilization
human evolution
evolution myths & Review:
fossil evidence:
Fossils tell us about all the organisms that lived in the past and how they are connected to the organisms that exist today.
today's agenda:
Monday, April 4th
what is classification?
... this is also called "taxonomy"
Classification is the grouping of things according to similar characteristics.
how do we use it in biology?
... in case you didn't know, this class is called "Biology"
Biological classification systems name and organize living things in a logical, meaningful way.
All living things are classified into seven major groups: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species.
These words sound scary, let's see some examples!
critical thinking:
If scientists around the world are studying the same animal, what do they call that animal if they speak different languages?
answer:
binomial nomenclature:
They refer to all organisms by their scientific name.

Your scientific name consists of your genus and species name.

For example: humans are called
Homo sapiens.
notice!!!
The words are in italics.
Genus is capitalized and comes first.
Species is second and not capitalized.
Reflection:
How did this activity compare to the process that scientists use to classify organisms?
pasta lab due by 3:15 today!
All of the pasta pieces belonged to Kingdom Pasta, what was first division or grouping after that called?
Classification of life: THE six kingdoms
Monera (Archae & Bacteria)
Protista
fungi (fungus)
plantae (plants)
animalia (animals)
classification of life:
the six kingdoms

Biologists today have classified and divided all living things into six groups they call Kingdoms.

These kingdoms are based on how living things are the same and how they are different.

With new discoveries every day, it is possible that this system could change. However, these five are the most accepted.

classification of life: the six kingdoms
Can you name any characteristics that could be used to organize these organisms in this way?

Who is more related? Animals & Fungi or Animals & Plants?

kingdom animalia:

What is the scientific name of the killer whale?
Phylum Chordata
Organisms in this phylum have a spinal cord.
They are usually
vertebrates
.
Vertebrates
are organisms with a backbone (can include cartilage).
vertebrates vs invertebrates
Invertebrates
Lack spinal cord and/or backbone.
Consist of MANY phylums.
Sponges are the most primitive of animal groups. They live in water (usually saltwater), are sessile (do not move from place to place), and filter tiny organisms out of the water for food.

Coelenterates (Cnidarians) are also very primitive. Their mouths, which take in food and get rid of waste, are surrounded by stinging tentacles. Some coelenterates are jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones.

Echinoderms include starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers. They live in seawater and have external skeletons.

Worms come in many varieties and live in all sorts of habitats — from the bottom of the ocean to the inside of other animals. They include flatworms (flukes), roundworms (hookworms), segmented worms (earthworms), and rotifers (philodina).

Mollusks are soft-bodied animals, which often live in hard shells. They include snails, slugs, octopus, squid, mussels, oysters, clams, scallops, chitons, and cuttlefish. Mollusks are the second-largest group of invertebrates, with 50,000 living species.

Arthropods are the largest and most diverse of all animal groups. They have segmented bodies supported by a hard external skeleton (or exoskeleton). Arthropods include insects, arachnids (spiders and their relatives), centipedes, millipedes, and crustaceans like crabs, lobsters, and shrimp.
3. Intro Notes!
3/07/15 AGENDA:

1. Hand back old work
4. Intro Video!
2. New Folders!!!
genetics quiz questions:
pre-writing.
... Let's see what you know...
Write as many words/phrases as you can that come to mind when you hear the word...
EVOLUTION
Evolution:
Change in the heritable traits of a population (species) of organisms over time.
Why don't we use the word "evolve" for an individual organism?
Why is it hard to see a population of organisms evolve?
Evolution is a different process, for two reasons. First, individuals do not evolve; only a population of a species* can evolve. This is because evolution involves changes to the prevalence of the inherited characteristics (traits) of an entire population of organisms, not to the traits of a single individual. Second, evolution occurs over many generations, not in an organism’s lifetime. It usually takes hundreds or thousands of generations for the prevalence of traits in a population to change. Because evolutionary change takes so many generations to become obvious, it is hard for scientists to see a population evolve – hard, but not impossible. Some species of fruit fly and bacteria, for example, produce several generations within a single year. By studying many generations of such populations for many years, scientists can see evolutionary change taking place.
a group of the same organisms that can mate to produce fertile offspring
Species:
Identify two different sources of variation...
http://www.sciencechannel.com/games-and-interactives/charles-darwin-game/
DO NOW & Question of the Day...

Adaptations are traits that help an organism to survive &/or reproduce.


Can you name any adaptations of this organism?
Each of you have a jar with a living thing inside of it.
HAND IN YESTERDAY'S EXIT TICKET!
write them here
fossils:
fossil record:
other evidence:
comparative anatomy:
comparative embryology & DNA
dino bones!
evolution of whales
fossil evidence suggests how whales evolved
Given these strips of paper (or fossil evidence), can YOU successfully determine how whales evolved?
EVOLUTION Recap & Evidence for evolution
Tuesday, April 7 Agenda
1. Evolution Review & Myths Ted Ed
2. Intro to Evidence for Evolution
3. Fossil Evidence
3.a. What are fossils?
3. b. How are they formed?
3.c. What is the fossil record?
3.d. Making a fossil record!
fossilization video
fossil rock!
if time: most important/exciting dino fossils!
exit ticket:
finish constructing fossil record!
Making a fossil record:
Step 1: Obtain Handouts!
Step 2: Color Fossils & Highlight Era
Step 3: Arrange them in correct order! (Either cut/rearrange or label #1 youngest.)
Step 4: Give yourself points!
hand in yesterday's ExIT TICKET!
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/similarity_hs_02
Homologous structures: traits inherited by different organisms from a common ancestor
https://www.brainpop.com/science/ecologyandbehavior/humanevolution/
L
i
f
e
:
https://www.brainpop.com/science/diversityoflife/sixkingdoms/

https://www.brainpop.com/science/diversityoflife/vertebrates/
https://www.brainpop.com/science/diversityoflife/invertebrates/
Classification of
Observations & Critical Thinking
1. What don't we use the word "evolve" for an individual organism?
Because evolution is for a group of organisms!
2. Why is it hard to see a population of organisms evolve?
Because evolution occurs over many generations - even millions of years!
What is variation?
variation:
two sources of variation
1. sexual reproduction
2. mutation
evolution & classification
i
5. Evo Exit Ticket!
& Classification
what have we learned so far...
evolution
...does NOT mean growth or development
...takes place in a GROUP of organisms
...does NOT happen to one organism
...occurs over MANY generations
... could take MILLIONS of years
... starts with variation in traits
...does NOT mean we come from monkeys
... results from sexual reproduction & mutation
... explains where new species come from
http://prezi.com/-yurzwrwsks-/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share
http://www.teachertube.com/video/introduction-to-evolution-240497
<iframe src="//www.teachertube.com/embed/video/240497" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>
http://statedclearly.com/videos/what-is-evolution/
adaptation
a mutation that results in a favorable trait that helps you to survive an/or reproduce

Caused by environmental pressures (weather, predator, no food)
....among organisms with adaptations!
Darwin
The Galapagos Islands!
The beaks were adapted to the food source.
An adaptation!
Mutations & Sexual Reproduction
March 15, 2016
http://peppermoths.weebly.com/
http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/society/schools/keystage1-2/darwin.aspx
EVIDENCE
The evidence that exists about organisms and their ancestors gives us insight into where life comes from.
In other words...
Types of evidence:
comparative anatomy
(homologous structures)
comparative embryology & DNA:
fossils
other evidence:
(vestigial structures)
Still on "Evolution & Classification"
Same Note Packet & Same Folder!
reminder:
All of the different organisms come from a common ancestor.
Through mutations and sexual reproduction, organisms start have different traits.
Darwin said that organisms with favorable traits, called ADAPTATIONS, survive and reproduce. This is known as natural selection.
Over MANY generations, a GROUP of organisms can become a new species. This is called evolution.

3. Classification Notes
2. Review Evo Quiz
1. Grade Sheets & Work
classification of humans...
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Aves
Class Reptilia
Class Mammalia
taxonomy/classification acronym
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
King

Phillip

came

over

for

good

soup
.
Kids

playing

chicken

on

freeways

get

smashed.

Keep

ponds
clean

or

frogs

get

sick.

Keep

pots

clean

or

family

gets

sick.

King

Phillip

can

only

find
green
socks.

Katy

Perry

came

over

for

good

sandwiches.

specific
many
activity: interpreting graphics taxonomy
Reminder:
Classification of Living Things Key Activity
Step 1: Watch Brain Pop Video on "Classification" as Review!
Step 2: Conduct model of note-taking from Brain Pop "6 Kingdoms" video on to Living Things Dichotomous Key
Step 3: Individually watch Brain Pop Vertebrate and Invertebrate videos and take notes on to Living Things Dichotomous Key
unicellular (no nucleus)
found in extreme places
unicellular (no nucleus)
come in different shapes
found everywhere
unicellular (WITH nucleus)
example: amoeba
photosynthesis
cell wall
example: trees, grass, weeds, flowers
found on dead plants & animals
exp: mushroom
multicellular
eat food to survive
birds, bugs, bears, ...
sponge
asymmetrical
filter food from water
tentacles around mouth
stinging cells
example: jellyfish
spiny skin
tube feet
example: sea star
worms
protective shell
"muscular foot"
example: snails & clams
jointed food (exoskeleton)
claws & antennae
exp: lobster, tick, crab, fly, spider
fur/hair
live young & give milk
warm blooded
feathers/wings
2 legs
bills/beaks
hard shells
live on land & water
reproduce in water (undergo metamorphosis)
example: frog & salamander
thick, dry, waterproof skin
example: lizard, snake, turtle
fins, gills, cold-blooded
fins, gills, cold-blooded
made of bones: salmon
made of cartilage: sharks
tuesday, april 12, 2016 agenda
10 min. watch "invertebrates" video & fill in key
1nvertebrates Review
10 min. watch "vertebrates" video & fill in key
Vertebrates Review
Logging in to brainpop...
Log in to www.redjacket.org
Click on Database Portal - Elementary
Click on Brain Pop
Type in "invertebrates" in search bar
Type in "vertebrates" in search bar
Thursday, April 14 2016 agenda
virtual field trip classification activity
Before we begin... let's practice!
How to use a dichotomous key...
Step 1
: Identify the Kingdom
No
(invertebrate):
Stay
on Step 2 to Identify Phylum (& Class)
Yes
(vertebrate):
Phylum Chordata,
go
to Step 3 to identify Chordata Classes
Step 2
: Ask yourself does it have a backbone?
ONLY IF
Animal Kingdom,
go
to Step 2
...for EVERY living thing...
Full transcript