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Martín Muñoz Restrepo

on 11 May 2011

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The Millennium Force is a rollercoaster located in Cedar Point, an amusement park in Ohio, USA. Cedar Point has 14 different rollercoaster that attract thousands of tourists each year.

Millennium Force was the 14th rollercoaster built and it broke 10 world records when it was first opened in 2000. It was the first rollercoaster in the world to exceed the height of 94 metres. It is also one of the longest steel rollercoaster in North America. It was named the number 1 steel rollercoaster in the world 5 consecutive years.
This rollercoaster was designed by a Swiss firm called Intamin (International Amusement Industries), a company famous for its innovative and creative attractions. Introduction Rollercoasters are high speed, extreme rides common in amusement parks. They were invented in 1885 based on the design of the railroad.

Rollercoasters have various trains which are not self powered, on the contrary, these trains are pulled up with a chain or cable. The train is initially set in motion by a launch mechanism like motors. One of the most important aspects of roller coasters is safety. Due to the size, weight and strength of these impressive mechanisms, they pose a large threat to the safety of any human who rides it. Engineers must ensure that the ride they design is perfectly safe before sending it out and accepting passengers. OFFICIAL RIDE VIDEO Millennium Force Statistics (Dimensions): Angle of lift hill: 45°
Angle of first drop: 80°
1st Hill height: 94m
2nd hill height: 52m
4th hill height: 90m
Maximum speed: 150 km/h
Ride Length: 167 metres
Ride Time: 2 minutes Physical conditions Potential Energy/Kenetic Energy During the rise in height that takes place on the first and biggest hill of the rollercoaster, the trains accumulate a lot of potential energy, which, on its way down is converted into kinetic energy, making it possible for the train to go back up the second hill and obtain potential energy once again and so on during the entire ride. Free Fall This rollercoaster includes a parabolic fall, meaning the train undergoes a free fall motion. In the first fall, the passengers experience the free fall, a moment in which the trains don’t even touch the track. Thanks to gravity and assuming there is a lack of air resistance, the higher the hill is, the faster the trains will be moving once they touch the tracks. Friction Friction is when one thing in motion rubs against another, stationary or not. In rollercoasters, this is particularly important and must be taken into account. When there is a free fall, the trains don’t touch the tracks, causing no friction and maximum speed. As the ride continues, the trains will slow down, granted there is no free fall. Velocity All the former concepts lead to one main thing. The speed of the rollercoaster. Millenium Force is 167 metres, it does this trajectory in 2 minutes (120 seconds). Considering friction and free fall, the speed turns out to be 150 km/hours. Speed increases in the free fall and decreases because of friction. It is velocity because the trains are always moving forward, seeing as the rollercoaster is a closed circuit. Centripetal Acceleration This force is essential in the construction and success of a rollercoaster. Since Millennium Force includes sharp turns, centripetal force is present. When the turn is made, the passengers on the train feel a force pushing them outwards (centrifugal), this is an opposite reaction to the centripetal acceleration. Centripital force= the cart velocity in metres per second. This means that in the Millennium Force, the centripetal acceleration would be 150,000/60= 2500 N. Gravity Gravity is the most essential force in a rollercoaster, as it is for most things. The reason the rollercoaster gets back to the beginning. This is because in the fall of the hill, the pull of gravity and weight is what causes the acceleration of the trains. This is why the first hill is always the highest, so the train can gain its maximum potential energy and be pulled down faster by gravity. Policies and Procedures Cedar Point hs clearly posted the height requirenments at the entrance of the atraction. (For safty of children, standard play shoes which does not contribute excessively to the child´s hight will be permited. The measuring of the children with out shoes is permited to get a final and fair desicion).
Under 10 year old kids need a "responsable person" to acommodate. The "responsable person" needs to be over 16 years old. All lap bars, shoulder harnesses and seatbelts must be positioned before the ride beggins. Riders which measure more than 6´6 feet can not enter to the atraction. There is no weight limit for the atraction, unless the rider does not fits in the seat of the car. Pregnant women are not allowed to ride in the atraction. Any kind of headphones of head accesories need to be removed. Jumping th line means a dismissal from the park without refunds of admission. Front seat waiting line is available in this atraction. (Jumping line policie aplies too) Bad weather conditions cause the closure of the atraction. Footwear and shirts must always be worn in the rides area. Smoking is cause for removal from the line. Advertisment Biological Consequences Even if all the correct security measures are taken and the rollercoaster is as safe as possible, there are still various unavoidable incidents that can happen regarding the health of the passengers. While these rides are exciting and fun, they are quite intense and can result in health issues. Humans are not meant to travel at such different heights and such high speeds, our bodies are never fully prepared for an extreme rollercoaster ride.
Each day, more intense and extreme rollercoasters are made, and each day, engineers design more and more rides that will soon become famous for their audacity, but lately, doctors have been wondering whether the rides have been becoming more and more dangerous. Some negative health situations which could occur are: BAROTRAUMA:
Due to the different heights and depths that a rollercoaster reaches in such high speeds, the inner ear of a person can be greatly harmed because of the atmospheric pressure changes. Since there is no time at all for your ear to adapt to the new pressure, and there is no time to get rid of an ear clog by yawning or chewing gum, the inner ear is affected. This can cause inflammation or the eardrum and extensive pain. The suggested course of action is to keep looking straight ahead during a ride so that the pressure changes don’t affect your eardrum. SPINAL DAMAGE:
While rollercoasters have seatbelts and well made seats, your body tends to jolt around a lot during the ride. The part that most moves around, especially if there is a bumpy track is your head, and as a consequence, your neck. Your neck is also one of the most sensible parts of the body, seeing as it is connected to the spinal cord, the neck must at all times be kept very safe. If a ride takes a long time and your neck jolts around a lot, it could dislodge a part of your spinal cord which could lead to simple dizziness or even paralysis.
Due to the high speeds and intense G forces, the brain is subjected to an increase in blood pressure. If the G forces pass the 4 G limit, it can harm your brain by increasing the blood pressure and, due to the sudden blood flow to the rain, causing fainting spells. These effects can also cause confusion, amnesia or convulsions.
The up and down, to and fros and sudden accelerations and deaccelerations are so extreme, that they sometimes cause the tearing of cerebral veins. This can result in cerebral hemorrhages or subdural hematomas.
If you have a recorded heart disease, high blood pressure, or weak cardiac muscles it is recommended that you do not step on a rollercoaster. The reason for this is because the thrill and high gravitational forces of the ride can spark off an irregular heartbeat that can lead to a heart attack. In the millennium Force, the freefall moment is especially risky because of the intensity of the fall, sometimes the uman body cannot tolerate this.
A rollercoaster ride can also leave you with smaller, less permanent damages or effects such as: sprains, burns(from the friction sparks), nausea, migraine, broken teeth, conjutivitis, or various scrapes and cuts.
Bibliography: http://www.steeltubeinstitute.org/pdf/casestudies/milenium.pdf









http://estaticos.elmundo.es/elmundosalud/PDF/12rusa.pdf THE END
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