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Transcript of WWI
Over 4,000,000 Americans
served in WW1
The government's main focus
The US economy turned out a vast supply of raw materials and munitions
Bond sales and increased taxes (War Revenue Act) helped to support the US in WW1 financially
The Lever Food and Fuel Act was passed, which
gave the federal government complete control over the pricing, sale, shipment, and distribution of coal
War at home
At home, women sold war bonds, conserved food, and volunteered for organizations like Red Cross, Salvation Army, and the YMCA
They were also employed in factories and other businesses; approx. 1,600,000 women joined the workforce between 1914 and 1918. They were taking the open jobs of the men that had gone to war
For the first time, women were permitted to join the military:
After the war, the military became exclusively male again
21,500 women became military nurses
Women’s war work increased support for women’s suffrage and contributed to the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920
Women During WW1
Creel Committee/ Propaganda
Treaty of Versailles
Why did we enter the war?
What caused the war?
Weapons of War
Lose of Profit: President Wilson refused to stop American ships from traveling close to Europe.
The sinking of the cruise ship, Lusitania. Which happened to carry weapons.
Germany continued to use submarine warfare against any threat, also breaking the Sussex Pledge.
The Zimmerman Telegram was intercepted, Germany's attempt to ally with Mexico to attack us.
To help Britain and fight for Democracy.
The assassination of the Austrian Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, by a Serbian terrorist.
Austria sends an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia didn't accept all of Austria's demand.
Austria declares war on Serbia.
Russia, allied with Serbia, mobilized its troops.
Germany, allied with Austria, mobilized against Russia. Germany declared war to Russia.
Ottoman Empire, made an alliance with Germany, they entered the war.
Germany declared war to France because...cause it's France.
Germany invades Neutral Belgium to attack the French, plan fails.
England, allied with Belgium, declares war on Germany.
Japan had an alliance with Britain, so they were dragged as well.
Canons- allowed for "shelling" across the trenches, far more efficient.
U-boats- The first submarines, stopped the movement of men, weapons, & supplies.
Chlorine Gas- Burns throat, asphyxiation
Mustard Gas- Burned the body
Aircraft and their carriers
Barbed Wire- Protection from the enemy even if they passed the machine guns.
Alcohol- Al though it really wasn't a weapon, soldiers drank heavily to forget that they could die in the trenches.
Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
Schlieffen Plan: Germany's 42 day plan to conquer France, they moved too fast without supplies so they were forced to rest.
The 1st Battle of the Marne: French troops held back the Germans stopping their plan.
Somme: Deadliest battle of the war. British and French losses numbered nearly three-quarters of a million men. British bombardment of German troops to allow the French in Verdum to regroup. Complete failure.
Ypres: General Douglas Haig's attempt to break through German defenses. Mines were used to disorient Germany, almost successful.
2nd Battle of the Marne: The last German offensive, they would not be on the offensive anymore.
Meuse-Argonne: Last major offensive of the war. It was the Allies way to cut off German troops from valuable sources. German troops were very tired at this point.
Most German Americans had very weak ties to
Many feared the negative treatment they might
receive if the United States entered the war
Very few called for intervening on Germany's side; instead, they called for neutrality, but said that if a war came they would remain loyal to the United States
They were excluded almost entirely from national discourse on the subject of the war
Historian Carl Wittke said that the harassment of German Americans was "one of the most difficult and humiliating experiences suffered by an ethnic group in American history."
German American Harassment in WWI
13,000 women were enlisted into the Navy. After the war, they were treated as Veterans, and received identical pay ($28.75/mo), responsibilities, and benefits as men did
305 women were enlisted in the Marine Corps to “free men to fight” (they became clerks and telephone operators)
233 bilingual women in the U.S. Army worked at switchboards near France
Minorities in WW1
African Americans were dealing with large amounts of segregation, both in the states and in the military
Most African Americans saw the war as an opportunity to show their patriotism
30% of troops were African American, even though only 10% of the American population was African American
380,000 African Americans served in the Army
The 369th Infantry Regiment (the Harlem Hellfighters) was the first entirely African-American Regiment during WW1
the 92nd and 93rd divisions were created specifically for African American fighters
George Creel- headed US Propaganda sources (Creel Committee/CPI)
career began as a newspaper reporter
devoted to PRO US PROPAGANDA
The Creel Committee/Committee of Public Information/CPI
printed propaganda in newspapers and advertised through media and businesses
used Censorship- suppressed other factors for an advantage
CPI consisted of 19 divisions- each a different type of propaganda
Important ones include:
Division of News- war related news
Division of Civic and Educational Cooperation- pamphlets
Division of Pictorial Publicity- visual advertising
was negotiated amongst ALLIED powers
Peace treaty that officially ended WWI
June 28, 1919
Treaty of Versailles Cont.
Included discussion between: Italy, France, Britain, and the USA
Britain and France- wanted German Punishment
Italy- wanted $$$
USA- wanted to "heal wounds" by the use of Wilson's League of Nations
Compromise: USA reluctantly agreed w/Br.&Fr. and Br.&Fr. agreed to go with the League guidelines
The Treaty of Versailles was forced upon Germany- If they didn’t sign the treaty, war would resume.
Germans saw all that Wilson had compromised to get his League of
Nations= Germans viewed it as a "betrayal" b/c the treaty had little to do w/ The Fourteen Points
Note: Wilson didn't like the treaty to begin with but his going to Paris prevented the treaty from being purely imperialistic.